અલ દાઈ અલ અજલ સૈયદના તાહેર ફખરુદ્દીન ત.ઉ.શ. ની ઝબાની બોમ્બે હાઈ કોર્ટ માં ૮ મી ડીસેમ્બર ૨૦૧૭ ના રોજે બપોરે ૧૨ વાગે ઐતિહાસિક કોર્ટ રૂમ નમ્બર ૪૬ માં શરુ થઇ. સૈયદના ફખરુદ્દીન દાવત ના કેસ નમ્બર ૩૩૭/૨૦૧૪ માં વાદી (Plaintiff) ની હેસિયત સી સાક્ષી આપી. નામદાર જસ્ટીસ ગૌતમ પટેલ ના કોર્ટ માં ઝબાની થઇ.
સૈયદના (Plaintiff) એ બરકતવંતા કુરઆન મજીદ હાથ માં લઈને કસમ ખાઈ ને બિસ્મિલ્લાહ પઢીને ઝબાની શરુ કરી.
સૈયદના ને પહેલા આપણા વકીલ મોહતરમ આનંદ દેસાઈ એ (ડી.એસ.કે.લીગલ) એ સવાલો પૂછા. નામદાર જસ્ટીસ ગૌતમ પટેલ એ ભી સૈયદના ને સવાલો પૂછા.
આનંદ દેસાઈ એ સૈયદના ને દાઉદી બોહરા કૌમ ના ઈતિહાસ વિષે સવાલ પૂછો, સૈયદના એ ફરમાયું કે દાઉદી બોહરા કૌમ ઈસ્માઈલી શિયા છે, કે જે ઈમામ ઈસ્માઈલ અ.સ. ને તાબે થયા અને ઈસ્માઈલી શિયા ની માન્યતા એમ છે કે વારીસ પર નસ્સ કર્યા પછી તે નસ્સ બદલાઈ ભી નહીં અને પાછી ખેંચાઈ ભી નહીં. આ માન્યતા દાઉદી બોહરા કૌમ ના અકીદા ના સિદ્ધાંત માં થી છે. આ માન્યતા ઈસ્માઈલી શિયા ની માન્યતા અને બીજા લોગો જે મૂસા કાઝીમ ને તાબે થયા એની માન્યતા ના વચ્ચે નો ફરક છે. બીજા સગલા એમ માને છે કે ઈસ્માઈલ ઈમામ ની નસ્સ પાછી ખેંચાઈ ગઈ અને જાઅફરુસ સાદિક ઈમામ એ પછી મૂસા કાઝીમ પર નસ્સ કીધી.
( આ કેસ ના વિવાદિત મુદ્દાઓ માં સી એક મુદ્દો એ છે કે શેહ્ઝાદા મુફદ્દલ સૈફુદ્દીન (પ્રતિવાદી) તરફથી કોર્ટ માં એમ સોગંદપૂર્વક નિવેદન આપવામાં આવ્યું છે કે નસ્સ બદલી ભી શકાઈ છે અને નસ્સ પાછી ભી ખેંચી શકાઈ છે.
આનંદ દેસાઈ એ પછી સૈયદના ને પૂછું કે દાઉદી બોહરા કૌમ ના ઇલ્મ (જ્ઞાન) ના સ્ત્રોત કયા છે. સૈયદના એ જવાબ ફરમાયો કે કિતાબો ની તરતીબ (ક્રમ) માં સૌથી વધીને કુરઆન મજીદ છે. તે પછી રસુલુલ્લાહ સ.અ. ની હદીસ અને ઇમામો ના કલામ, એજ મરતબા (સ્થાન) પર દોઆતો ની કિતાબો છે. સૈયદના એ તફસીર (વિસ્તૃત વર્ણન) કરી કે કિતાબો નોંધ ની મિસલ છે અને દોઆતો જે એની શફહી (મૌખિક) માઅના (અર્થ) બયાન કરે તે સગલા સી વધીને છે, કેમ કે તે કિતાબો ની સહી માઅના અને તફસીર છે.
સૈયદના એ ફર્માયું કે આપ આ કેસ માં અકીદા (માન્યતા) ના મુદ્દાઓ સાબિત કરવા માટે ૫૧ માં દાઈ સૈયદના તાહેર સૈયદના રી.અ. અને ૫૨ માં દાઈ સૈયદના મોહમ્મદ બુરહાનુદ્દીન રી.અ. ના મૌખિક બયાનો અને તફસીર પર એતેમાદ કરશે (પુરાવા આપશે).
નામદાર જસ્ટીસ ગૌતમ પટેલ એ સૈયદના ને પૂછું કે જે વખ્તે નસ્સ થાય તે સમયે શું એમ જરૂરી છે કે બીજા લોકૉ ને ભી ખબર હોઈ કે નસ્સ થઇ છે, તો સૈયદના એ ફર્માવ્યુ કે એમ જરૂરી નથી અને અનિવાર્ય નથી કે બીજા લોકોને ખબર હોઈ અને ફરમાવ્યું કે ઈતિહાસ માં એમ બન્યું છે કે નસ્સ કીધી હોઈ અને ખાનગી રાખવામાં આવી હોઈ જેથી ખિલાફ (વિરુદ્ધ) ના લોકો દાવત ના સિલસિલા ના નિઝામ (ક્રમ માં) ખલેલ (વિક્ષેપ) કરવાની કોશિશ ના કરે.
આનંદ દેસાઈ એ સૈયદના ને સવાલ કરો કે જયારે એમ બને કે મનસૂસ (ઉત્તરાધિકારી) એના નાસ (પૂર્વાધિકારી) ની હયાતી માં જ વફાત (ગુઝરી જાઈ) થઇ જાઈ ગાદી નશીન થવા પહેલા (દાઈ ના પદ ઉપર આવા પહેલા) તો શું થાય, તો સૈયદના એ જવાબ દીધો કે જયારે નસ્સ થઇ જાઈ તો મનસૂસ તે આલા મકામ (ઊંચા હોદ્દા) માં આ આલમ માં – દુનિયામાં – પોહંચી ચુક્યા છે તા કે એ આલા મકામ માં જન્નત માં પોહંચે છે. અગર મનસૂસ દાઈ ની હયાતીમાં વફાત થઇ જાઈ તો દાઈ તે વખ્ત બીજા મનસૂસ ને નસ્સ કરીને કાઈમ કરે. આ વાત સાબિત કરવાના વાસ્તે સૈયદના એ અમુક મિસાલો (દાખલાઓ) પેશ કીધા. એમાં કુરઆન મજીદ માં સૂરત એ મરયમ ની ૫૩ મી આયત દલીલ માં પેશ કીધી. એ આયત માં હારૂન ને, કે જે હારૂન મૂસા નબી ના મનસૂસ હતા, યે હારૂન ને કુરઆન મૂસા ના જ મકામ માં, યાની નબી ગરદાને (માને) છે. હારૂન વફાત થયા પછી મૂસા એ બીજા મનસૂસ ને કાઈમ કીધા.
આનંદ દેસાઈ એ સૈયદના ને પૂછું કે સજદો જે ઈબાદત વાસ્તે હોઈ અને તે સજદો કે જે ઈમામ યા એના દાઈ ને કરે એમાં ફરક શું છે. સૈયદના એ ફરમાવ્યું કે ઈબાદત નો સજદો ફક્ત અલ્લાહ તઆલા ને થાય. જે ઈમામ યા દાઈ ને સજદો કરે એ સજદા ને “તકબીલુલ અર્દ” (યાને ઝમીન ને ચૂમવું) ભી કેહવાઈ છે અને એ એહ્તેરામ (માન) અને અઝમત (આદર) ની ટોચ સમાન છે.
(આ વાત અગત્ય ની છે કેમકે સૈયદના ની કોર્ટ માં પેશી એમ છે કે ફક્ત ઈમામ યા જે સાહેબ હવે ઈમામ થાનાર છે, યા કે દાઈ અથવા જે હવે દાઈ થાનાર છે, એહને જ સજદો થઇ શકે, શેહ્ઝાદા મુફદ્દલ સૈફુદ્દીન – (પ્રતિવાદી) અને એના ભાઈઓ સૈયદના કુત્બુદ્દીન (મૂળ વાદી) ને સજદો કરતા હતા.)
આનંદ દેસાઈ એ સૈયદના ને એમ ભી પૂછું કે એવા કોઈ જુમલાઓ (શબ્દો) છે કે જે દાઈ અને માઝૂન ને સાથે જોડી ને વપરાયા છે. સૈયદના એ મીસાલ ના તૌર (ઉદાહરણ રૂપે) પર આ જુમલાઓ ની ઝિકર કીધી.
માઝૂન દાઈ ના જમણા હાથ (યમીન) છે અને દાઈ ના સાથે દાવત કાઈમ કરે છે.
દાઈ અને માઝૂન દાવત ના ફર્ઝંદો ના બાવા અને માં છે.
માઝૂન દાઈ ના સચ્ચા દોસ્ત (સદીક) છે અને મુમિનીન ના ઉપર શાહિદ (ગવાહ) છે.
સૈયદના એ એમ ભી ગવાહી આપી કે ૫૧ માં દાઈ સૈયદના તાહેર સૈયદના રી.અ. યે જે સૈયદના કુત્બુદ્દીન રી.અ. ને મિસાલ (કાગઝ, પત્ર) લખેલ હતો, એ મિસાલ ને સૈયદના મોહમ્મદ બુરહાનુદ્દીન રી.અ. નઝર ફરમાવે છે એની અમુક તસ્વીરો (ફોટાઓ) છે. સૈયદના બુરહાનુદ્દીન અને સૈયદના કુત્બુદ્દીન બંને એ તસ્વીર માં નજર આવે છે, અને સૈયદના ફખરુદ્દીન એ તે ફોટા ખેંચ્યા છે, એ મિસાલ માં ૫૧ માં દાઈ યે વાઝેઅ ઇશારા (ચોક્ખા સંકેતો) કીધા છે કે સૈયદના કુત્બુદ્દીન (મૂળ વાદી) ૫૩ માં દાઈ થાશે.
નામદાર જસ્ટીસ ગૌતમ પટેલ એ સૈયદના ને પૂછું કે આપ ૫૧ માં દાઈ અને ૫૨ માં દાઈ ની વાઅઝો ની ઓડીઓ અને વિડીઓ રેકોર્ડીંગ પર શું કામ એતેમાદ (નિર્ભરતા) કર્યો છે, સૈયદના એ જવાબ ફરમાવ્યો કે આ રેકોર્ડીંગ પર એતેમાદ એ વાસ્તે કર્યો છે કેમ કે અકીદા (માન્યતા) ના કેટલાક મહત્ત્વ ના ઉસૂલ (સિદ્ધાંત) ૫૧ માં દાઈ અને ૫૨ માં દાઈ ના બયાનો વિશ્વસનીય અને મોઅતમદ (પ્રમાણભૂત) છે. એમાં થી કેટલાક ઉસૂલ છે:
નસ્સ ખાનગી (private conferment) માં થઇ શકે
મનસૂસ પોતાના નફસ (ખુદ) ના માટે અને પોતાના હકમાં (favour) શહાદત (સાક્ષી) આપી શકે, એમ બતાવવાને કે દાઈ એ આપ ના ઉપર નસ્સ કીધી છે
નસ્સ ઇશારા સી થઇ શકે
નસ્સ એક વાર કીધા પછી બદલાઈ ભી નહીં અને પાછી ખેંચાઈ ભી નહીં (cannot be changed, revoked or superseded)
માઝૂન ના રુતબા નો આલા મકામ (દરજ્જો) અને વિશ્વસનીયતા (credibility) બતાવવા વાસ્તે
સૈયદના નું પરીક્ષણ (examination in chief) તમામ થયુ અને શેહ્ઝાદા મુફદ્દલ સૈફુદ્દીન (પ્રતિવાદી) ના વકીલ (senior council) મોહતરમ ઇક્બાલ ચાગલા એ સૈયદના ફખરુદ્દીન નું પરીક્ષણ (cross examination) શરુ કીધું.
ઇકબાલ ચાગલા એ સૈયદના ને આપની નિજી બાબતો (personal background) ના બારામાં ઘણા સવાલો પૂછા, ખાસ્સતન સૈયદના નું શિક્ષણ, આપના રહેઠાણ, આપના વ્યાપાર અને આપ ના પરિવાર ને લાગતા વળગતા સવાલો પૂછા.
ઇકબાલ ચાગલા એ સૈયદના ને દાવત ના અસરાર (ભેદ) અને ખાસ ઇલ્મ નો સવાલ કીધો કે જેના સી આપ ને સૈયદના કુત્બુદ્દીન (મૂળ વાદી) એ ખાસ કીધા અને પૂછું કે એ ઇલ્મ શું કામ આપું. સૈયદના એ જવાબ ફરમાવ્યો કે આ ખાસ ઇલ્મ આપું તાકે આપ દાઈ અને દાવતની ખિદમત કરી શકે. ઇકબાલ ચાગલા એ પૂછું કે શું સૈયદના કુત્બુદ્દીન સૈયદના ફખરુદ્દીન સી દાઈ અને દાવત ની ખિદમત ની શું ઉમ્મીદ રાખતા હતા, સૈયદના એ જવાબ દીધો કે જેમ સૈયદના કુત્બુદ્દીન એ દાઈ અને દાવત ની ખિદમત કીધી એમ, ઇખ્લાસ (નિષ્ઠા) અને નશાત (devotion) ના સાથે.
ઇકબાલ ચાગલા એ સૈયદના ને સવાલ કરો કે જયારે વિવાદ ઉભો થાય કે દાઈ કોણ છે, તો એમાં માઝૂન નું શું અમલ (ભૂમિકા) હોઈ. સૈયદના ફખરુદ્દીન એ ફરમાવ્યું કે દાઈ કોણ છે એ વિવાદ ના વખ્ત માં માઝૂન નો કૌલ મોતમદ (પ્રમાણભૂત) અને વિશ્વસનીય રહ્યો છે.
સૈયદના ફખરુદ્દીન ને પૂછું કે આપે ક્યારે એમ જાણું કે આપના બાવાજી સાહેબ ૫૩ માં દાઈ સૈયદના ખુઝૈમા કુત્બુદ્દીન ૫૨ માં દાઈ સૈયદના મોહમ્મદ બુરહાનુદ્દીન ના વારસ છે, સૈયદના એ જવાબ ફરમાવ્યો કે એ સમય ના સાથે વધુ અને વધુ માલુમ પડતું ગયું (it was a progression). નાની ઉંમર સી જેમ વખ્ત પસાર થતો ગયો તેમ ઝ્યાદા અને ઝ્યાદા માલુમ પડતું ગયું. અને ૫૨ માં દાઈ ના શેહ્ઝાદાઓ, અને શેહ્ઝાદા મુફદ્દલ સૈફુદ્દીન (પ્રતિવાદી) સહિત, સગલા સૈયદના કુત્બુદ્દીન ને સજદો દેતા અને ૫૨ માં દાઈ અને સૈયદના કુત્બુદ્દીન ને સાથે કરીને “બેવે મૌલા” કહીને ખિતાબ (સંબોધન) કરતા હતા. એ સગલા ના અમલ એ ભી મને એમ ઝ્યાદા બતાવું.
ઇકબાલ ચાગલા એ અખબાર (સમાચાર પત્ર) માં છપાયેલા એક લેખ કોર્ટ માં પુરાવા રૂપે પેશ કીધો. તે જ લેખ પહેલા સૈયદના કુત્બુદ્દીન એ આપે કોર્ટ માં રજુ કરેલી મૂળ અરજીમાં માં પેશ કીધો હતો પણ તે વખ્તે પ્રતિવાદી શેહ્ઝાદા મુફદ્દલ સૈફુદીન એ તે માન્ય ન્હોતો રાખ્યો. સમાચાર પત્રો માં છપાયેલા આ લેખ માં હિન્દુસ્તાન ના ભૂતપૂર્વ ચીફ જસ્ટીસ (સુપ્રીમ કોર્ટ ના સર્વોચ્ચ ન્યાયધીશ) નામદાર જસ્ટીસ અઝીઝ એહમદી ના નિવેદન વિષે છે, જેમને કહ્યું હતું કે “મેં દસ્તાવેજો ની ધ્યાનપૂર્વક તપાસ કરી છે અને મને એમ યકીન છે કે સૈયદના કુત્બુદ્દીન નું કેહવું કે આપ ૫૩ માં દાઈ છે, તેની બુનિયાદ સિદ્ધાંત પર આધારિત છે.” (“ I examined the documents and I beleive that Syedna Qutbudin’s stand of the 53 rd Dai is principled”)
નામદાર જસ્ટીસ ગૌતમ પટેલ એ આ લેખ ને શેહ્ઝાદા મુફદ્દલ સૈફુદ્દીન (પ્રતિવાદી) ના પુરાવા (exhibit) તરીકે રેકોર્ડ પર લીધો છે.
નામદાર જસ્ટીસ ગૌતમ પટેલ એ સૈયદના ના પરીક્ષણ (cross examination) ના વાસ્તે ૮ મી, ૯ મી, અને ૧૨ મી જાન્યુઆરી, ૨૦૧૮ એ તારીખ આપી છે.
८ दिसंबर २०१७ के दिन, दोपहर १२ बजे बॉम्बे हाई कोर्ट के तारीखी कोर्ट रूम, रूम नंबर ४६ में अल-दाई अल-अजल सैयदना ताहेर फखरुद्दीन (त.उ.श.) की गवाही शुरू हुई. आपने दावत के केस नंबर ३३७/२०१४ में प्लेंटिफ की हैसियत से गवाही दी. नामदार जस्टिस गौतम पटेल के कोर्ट में यह कार्यवाही हुई.
सैयदना (त.उ.श.) (प्लेंटिफ) ने मुतबर्रक कुरआने मजीद को हाथ में ले कर कसम खाई और बिस्मिल्लाह पढके गवाही शुरू फरमाई.
पहले सैयदना (त.उ.श.) को आपके वकील श्री आनंद देसाई ने सवालात पूछे. नामदार जस्टिस गौतम पटेल ने भी कई सवालात पूछे.
श्री आनंद देसाई ने सैयदना (त.उ.श.) को दाउदी बोहरा कौम के इतिहास के बारे में प्रश्न पूछाs. सैयदना ने फरमाया कि दाउदी बोहरा कौम इस्माईली शिआ है जो इमाम इस्माईल (अ.स.) के अत्बा है और इस्माईली शिआ की मान्यता है कि वारिस पर की गई नस्स को कभी भी बदला नहीं जाता है और न कभी वापस लिया जाता है. यह मान्यता दाउदी बोहरा कौम के अकीदे के बुनियादी उसूलों में से है. यह मान्यता इस्माईली शिआ के अलावा दूसरें लोग जो मूसा काज़िम को इमाम मानते है उनसे अलग है. मूसा काज़िम के अत्बा यह मानते है कि इस्माईल इमाम पर की हुई नस्स वापस ले ली गई और इमाम जाफरुस सादिक (अ.स.) ने मूसा काज़िम पर नस्स फरमाई.
(इस केस के मुद्दों में से एक अति महत्त्व का मुद्दा यह है कि शेहज़दा मुफद्दल सैफुद्दीन (प्रतिवादी/डिफेन्डंट) का यह कहना है कि नस्स बदली भी जा सकती है और वापस भी ली जा सकती है)
उसके बाद श्री आनंद देसाई ने सैयदना से पूछा कि दाउदी बोहरा कौम में इल्म के स्रोत कौन से है. सैयदना ने जवाब फरमाया कि किताबों की तरतीब में सब से ऊँचे स्थान पर कुरआने मजीद है. उसके बाद रसुलुल्लाह (स.अ.व.) की हदीस और अइम्मत के कलाम. दोआतों की किताबों का भी यही दरजा है. सैयदना ने तफसीर फरमाई कि किताबों में जो इल्म है वह लिखित है और उस इल्म का अर्थ जो दोआतों ने मौखिक रूप से अपने बयानो फरमाया है वह सब से महत्त्वपूर्ण है क्योंकि वह किताबों में लिखित इल्म का सही अर्थ है.
सैयदना ने फरमाया कि इस केस में अकीदे के बारे में उमूर में अपनी बात साबित करने के लिए आप ५१ वे दाई सैयदना ताहेर सैफुद्दीन (री.अ.) और ५२ वे दाई सैयदना मोहम्मद बुरहानुद्दीन (री.अ.) के मौखिक बयानों और तफसीरों का उपयोग करेंगे.
जस्टिस गौतम पटेल ने सैयदना को पुछा कि नस्स करते समय या उसके बाद क्या यह अनिवार्य है कि अन्य लोगों को भी नस्स के बारे मे सूचित किया जाए ? सैयदना ने फरमाया कि ऐसा ज़रूरी या अनिवार्य नहीं है कि दूसरों को पता हो, और फरमाया कि तारीख में ऐसे कई उदाहरण है कि नस्स करने के बाद उसे अत्यंत गुप्त रखा जाए. इसका एक कारण यह भी है कि मनसूस के खिलाफ के लोग दोआत के सिलसिले में खलल करने की कोशिष न कर पाए.
श्री आनंद देसाई ने सैयदना को पूछा कि जब मन्सूस अपने नास की हयाती में ही अर्थात गादी नशीन होने से पहले ही वफात हो जाए, तो क्या प्रावधान है. सैयदना ने जावाब फरमाया कि जब मन्सूस पर नस्स कर दी जाए तो मन्सूस इस आलम मे – दुनिया मे – उस आला मकाम में पहुँच ही जाते है और फिर जन्नत में भी उसी आला मकाम में पहुँचते है. अगर मन्सूस दाई की हयात में वफात हो जाए तो दाई नस्स कर के दूसरें मन्सूस को काइम फरमाते है. इस बात को साबित करने के लिए सैयदना ने कुछ मिसालें दलील के रूप में पेश की. उन में से एक सुरतुल मरियम की ५३ वी आयत बताई. इस आयत में हारुन (अ.स.) को, जो मूसा नबी (स.अ.) के मन्सूस है, उन्हें कुरआने मजीद में मूसा के मकाम में अर्थात नबी के मकाम में बताया गया है. हारुन (अ.स.) के वफात के बाद मूसा (स.अ.) नबी ने दूसरें मन्सूस को काइम फरमाया.
श्री आनंद देसाई ने सैयदना से पूछा कि इबादत के सजदे में और वह सजदे में जो इमाम और दाई को किया जाता है उसमें क्या फर्क है? सैयदना ने फरमाया कि इबादत का सजदा सिर्फ अल्लाह तआला को किया जाता है. जो सजदा इमाम या दाई को किया जाता है उसे तक्बीलुल अर्द (यानी ज़मीन को चूमना) भी कहते है और यह एहतेराम व अज़मत की निहायत है.
(यह बहुत अहम मसला है क्योंकि सैयदना ने कोर्ट में यह पेश किया है कि सजदा सिर्फ इमाम, या आप के मनसूस जो इमाम बनेंगे, दाई या या आप के मनसूस जो दाई बनेंगे, उन्हें ही किया जा सकता है. शेहज़दा मुफद्दल सैफुद्दीन (डिफेन्डंट) और उनके भाई सैयदना कुत्बुद्दीन (री.अ.) को सजदा करते थे.)
श्री आनंद देसाई ने सैयदना से यह भी पूछा कि ऐसे कोइ जुमले है जिनका उपयोग दाई और माज़ून को साथ में जोड़ कर संबोधन किया जाता है. सैयदना ने मिसाल की तौर पर इन जुमलों की ज़िकर फरमाई
माज़ून दाई के दाहिने हाथ (यमीन) है और दाई के साथ दावत काइम करते है.
दाई और माज़ून मुमेनीन के रूहानी बावा और माँ है.
माज़ून दाई के सच्चे दोस्त (सदीक) है और मुमेनीन पर शाहिद है.
सैयदना ने उन तस्वीरों के बारे में भी गवाही दी, जो आपने ली थी, जब सैयदना बुरहानुद्दीन (री.अ.) उस मिसाल (सन्देश/पत्र) को पढ़ रहे थे जिसे सैयदना ताहेर सैफुद्दीन (री.अ.) ने सैयदना कुत्बुद्दीन (री.अ.) को अपने ही ख़त से लिखा था. सैयदना बुरहानुद्दीन (री.अ.) और सैयदना कुत्बुद्दीन (री.अ.) इन तस्वीरों में साथ नज़र आते है. उस मिसाल में ५१ वे दाई सैयदना ताहेर सैफुद्दीन (री.अ.) ने स्पष्ट संकेत दिए है कि सैयदना कुत्बुद्दीन (री.अ.) ५३ वे दाई काइम होंगे.
नामदार जस्टिस गौतम पटेल ने सैयदना से पूछा कि आप ५१ वे दाई और ५२ वे दाई की वाअज़ों की ऑडियो वीडियो रेकोर्डिंग पर किस वजह से निर्भर होना चाहते है? सैयदना ने जवाब फरमाया कि इन रेकोर्डिंग पर आपका एतेमाद इसलिए है क्योंकि अकीदे के कईं महत्त्व के उसूलों के बारे में उनके बयान आधिकारिक और प्रामाणित है, जैसे:
नस्स खानगी या गुप्त तरीके से भी की जा सकती है.
मन्सूस अपने आप के लिए और अपने हक में शहादत/गवाही दे सकते है यह बताने के लिए कि दाई ने उन पर नस्स फरमाई है.
नस्स इशारे से हो सकती है.
एक बार नस्स कर दी जाए फिर वह बदली भी नहीं जा सकती और वापस भी नहीं ली जा सकती.
माज़ून का आला मरतबा और माज़ून की विश्वसनीयता साबित करने के लिए.
श्री इकबाल चागला ने सैयदना को आपकी हयात के बारे में कई प्रश्न पूछे खास कर के आपकी तालीम के बारे में, आपके निवासस्थान के बारे में, आपके व्यवसाय के बारे में और आपके पारिवारिक मामलों के बारे में.
श्री चागला ने सैयदना को दावत के उन असरार और खास इल्म के बारे में पूछा जिस इल्म से सैयदना कुत्बुद्दीन ने आपको नवाज़ा और यह भी पूछा की यह इल्म देने का उद्देश्य क्या था. सैयदना ने जवाब फरमाया कि यह खास इल्म आपको इसलिए बख्शा गया ताकि आप दाई और दावत की खिदमत कर सके. श्री चागला ने पूछा कि सैयदना कुत्बुद्दीन को सैयदना फखरुद्दीन से, दाई और दावत की खिदमत की कैसी उम्मीदें थी. सैयदना ने जवाब दिया कि यह उम्मीद थी कि जिस तरह सैयदना कुत्बुद्दीन ने दाई और दावत की खिदमत की, इखलास व नशात से, उसी तरह आप भी खिदमत करे.
श्री चागला ने सैयदना से पूछा कि जब कभी यह विवाद हो कि दाई कौन है, तो इस इख्तिलाफ को सुलझाने में माज़ून की क्या भूमिका होती है? सैयदना फखरुद्दीन ने फरमाया कि इतिहास में हुए ऐसे विवाद के समय में माज़ून के कौल (कथन) को मौतमद (विश्वसनीय) और आधिकारिक माना गया है.
सैयदना से पूछा गया कि आपको कब यह मालूम हुआ के आपके वालिद ५३ वे दाई सैयदना कुत्बुद्दीन ५२ वे दाई सैयदना बुरहानुद्दीन के वारिस है. आपने फरमाया कि यह एहसास धीरे धीरे होता गया. छोटी आयु से धीरे धीरे यह मालूमात हासिल हुई और ५२ वे दाई के शेहजादें व शेहज़ादियां जिनमें शेहज़दा मुफद्दल सैफुद्दीन (डिफेन्डंट) भी शामिल है, वे सब सैयदना कुत्बुद्दीन को सजदा करते थे और ५२ वे दाई और सैयदना कुत्बुद्दीन को साथ में “बेवे मौला” (दोनों मौला) कह कर संबोधित करते थे। आपने फरमाया कि इन आमाल से भी मुझे इल्म हुआ.
श्री चागला ने सबूत के तौर पर अख़बार में प्रकाशित हुए एक लेख को कोर्ट में पेश किया. पहले इसी लेख को सैयदना कुत्बुद्दीन ने अपने प्लेंट (वाद-पत्र) में पेश किया था लेकिन उस समय शेहज़दा मुफद्दल सैफुद्दीन (डिफेन्डंट) ने इसे कबूल नहीं किया था. इस लेख में भारत के पूर्व मुख्य न्यायाधीश (सुप्रीम कोर्ट के चीफ जस्टिस) नामदार जस्टिस अज़ीज़ अहमदी द्वारा जारी किये गये बयान का उल्लेख था कि, “मैंने दस्तावजों को गौर से पढ़ा और जांचा है और इस निष्कर्ष पर आया हूँ कि सैयदना कुत्बुद्दीन का कहना कि वे ५३ वे दाई है, यह सिद्धांतों पर आधारित है.” (“ I examined the documents and I beleive that Syedna Qutbudin’s stand of the 53 rd Dai is principled”)
जस्टिस गौतम पटेल ने इस लेख को शेहज़दा मुफद्दल सैफुद्दीन (डिफेन्डंट) का दाखला (exhibit) मानते हुए मंज़ूर किया है और रेकॉर्ड पर ले लिया है.
जस्टिस गौतम पटेल ने सैयदना फखरुद्दीन (प्लेंटिफ) के परिक्षण (cross examination) के लिए तारीख ८,९ और १२ जनवरी, २०१८ निर्धारित की है.
الداعي الاجل سيدنا طاهر فخر الدين طع ني زباني بمبئي هاي كورٹ ما ٨ مي ديسمبر ٢٠١٧ دوپهيرے ١٢ واجے تاريخي كورٹروم نمبر ٤٦ ما شروع تهئي، سيدنا فخر الدين دعوة نا كيس نمبر ٣٣٧\٢٠١٤ ما پلينتيف (plaintiff) ني حيثية سي گواهي آپي، نامدار جستيس گوتم پٹيل نا كورٹ ما زباني تهئي،
سيدنا (plaintiff) يه متبرك قران مجيد هاتهـ ما لئي نے قسم كهائي نے بسم الله پرهي نے زباني شروع كيدي،
سيدنا نے پهلے آپنا وكيل محترم آنند ديسائي (DSK Legal) يه سؤالو پوچها، نامدار جستيس گوتم پٹيل يه بهي كتناك سؤالو پوچها،
آنند ديسائي يه سيدنا نے داؤدي بهره قوم ني تاريخ نا باره ما سؤال پوچهو ، سيدنا يه فرمايو كه داؤدي بهره قوم اسماعيلي شيعة چهے، كه جه امام إسماعيل عم نے تابع تهيا، انے اسماعيلي شيعة ني مانييتا ايم چهے كه وارث پر نص كيدا پچهي يه نص بدلائي بهي نه انے كهيچائي بهي نه، آ مانيتا داؤدي بهره قوم نا عقيدة نا أصول ما سي چهے، آ مانييتا اسماعيلي شيعة نے بيسرا لوگو جه موسى كاظم نے تابع تهيا اهما ا مانيتا نو فرق چهے ، يه سگلا ايم مانے چهے كه إسماعيل امام ني نص كهيچائي گئي انے جعفر الصادق امام يه پچهي موسى كاظم پر نص كيدي،
(آ كيس نا مُدّه ؤ ما سي ايك مُدّة ني وات يه چهے كه شهزاده مفضل سيف الدين (defendant) ايم كهے چهے كه نص بدلي بهي سكائي نے كهيچي بهي سكائي)
آنند ديسائي يه پچهي سيدنا نے پوچهو كه داؤدي بهره قوم ما علم نا مصادر سوں چهے، سيدنا يه جواب فرمايو كه كتابو ني ترتيب ما سگلا سي ودهي نے قران مجيد چهے، ته پچهي رسول الله صلع ني حديث انے امامو نا كلام، يه ج مرتبة پر دعاتو ني كتابو چهے، سيدنا يه تفسير كيدي كه كتابو نوندهـ ني مثل چهے، انے جه دعاتو اهني معنى شفهي (oral) بيان كرے ته سگلا سي ودهي نے چهے، كيمكه يه كتابو ني صحيح معنى انے تفسير چهے،
سيدنا يه فرمايو كه آپ آ كيس ما عقيدة نا أمور ثابت كروا نا واسطے ٥١ ما داعي سيدنا طاهر سيف الدين رض انے ٥٢ ما داعي سيدنا محمد برهان الدين رض نا شفهي (oral) بيانو انے تفسير پر اعتماد كرسے ،
نامدار جستيس گوتم پٹيل يه سيدنا نے پوچهو كه جه وقت ما نص تهائي يا تو يه عرصه ما سوں ايم اهم يا ضروري چه كه بيسرا لوگو نے بهي خبر هو ئي كه نص تهئي چهے ، سيدنا يه فرمايو كه ايم ضروري نتهي انے لازم نتهي كه بيسرا نے خبر هوئي، انے فرمايو كه تاريخ ما مثالو چهے كه نص كيدي هوئي ته خانگي راكهو هوئي تاكه خلاف نا لوگو دعوة نا سلسلة انے نظام ما خلل كروا ني كوشش نه كرے،
آنند ديسائي يه سيدنا نے سؤال كيدو كه جيوارے ايم بنے كه منصوص اهنا ناص ني حياتي ما وفاة تهئي جائي گادي نشين تهاوا پهلے تو كيم تهائي، سيدنا يه جواب ديدو كه جيوارے نص تهئي جائي، تو منصوص يه اعلى مقام ما آ عالم ما – دنيا ما – پهنچي چكا چهے، تاكه يه اعلى مقام يه جنة ما پهنچے چهے. اگر منصوص داعي ني حياتي ما وفاة تهئي جائي تو داعي ته وقت بيسرا منصوص نے نص كري نے قائم كرے، آ وات ثابت كروا نا واسطے سيدنا يه كتناك مثالو پيش كيدا، اهما قران مجيد ما سورة مريم ني ٥٣ مي آية دليل ما پيش كيدي. يه آية ما هارون نے، كه جه هارون موسى نبي نا منصوص هتا، يه هارون نے قران موسى ناج مقام ما، – يعني نبي -گردانے چهے. هارون وفاة تهيا اهنا پچهي موسى يه بيسرا منصوص نے قائم كيدا،
آنند ديسائي يه سيدنا نے پوچهو كه سجدة كه جه عبادة واسطے هوئي انے وه سجده كه جه امام يا داعي نے كرے اهما فرق سوں. سيدنا يه فرمايو كه عبادة نو سجدة فقط الله تعالى نے تهائي، جه امام يا داعي نے سجده كرے، يه سجده نے “تقبيل الأرض” (يعني زمين نے چومبؤ) بهي كهوائي، انے يه احترام انے عظمة ني نهاية چهے،
(آ وات ضروري چهے كيمكه سيدنا ني كورٹ ما پيشي ايم چهے فقط امام يا جه هوے امام تهانار چهے ، يا كه داعي يا جه هوے داعي تهانار چهے ، اهنے ج سجدة تهئي سكے، شهزاده مفضل سيف الدين – (defendant) انے اهنا بهائيو سيدنا قطب الدين (original plaintiff) نے سجده كرتا تها)
آنند ديسائي يه سيدنا نے ايم بهي پوچهو كه ايوا كئي جملة ؤ چهے كه جه داعي نے ماذون نے ساتهے جوري نے وپرائي چهے، سيدنا يه مثال ني طور پر آ جملة ؤ ني ذكر كيدي،
• ماذون داعي نا جمنا هاتهـ (يمين) چهے انے داعي نا ساتهے دعوة قائم كرے چهے.
• داعي نے ماذون دعوة نا فرزندو نا باوا انے ماں چهے.
• ماذون داعي نا سچا دوست (صديق) چهے انے مؤمنين نا اوپر شاهد چهے،
سيدنا يه ايم بهي گواهي آپي ٥١ ما داعي سيدنا طاهر سيف يه جه سيدنا قطب الدين نے مثال (كاغذ) لكها، يه مثال نے سيدنا محمد برهان الدين رض نظر فرماوے چهے اهني كتنيك تصويرو (فوتوگراف) چهے، سيدنا برهان الدين انے سيدنا قطب الدين بيوے تصوير ما نظر آوے چهے، انے سيدنا فخر الدين يه فوتو ليدها چهے، يه مثال ما ٥١ ما داعي يه واضح إشارة كيدا چهے كه سيدنا قطب الدين (original plaintiff) ٥٣ ما داعي تهاسے،
نامدار جستيس گوتم پٹيل يه سيدنا نے پوچهو كه آپنے ٥١ ما داعي انے ٥٢ ما داعي ني وعظو ني اوديو انے ويديو ريكوردنگ پر سكام اعتماد (rely) كرؤں چهے، سيدنا يه جواب ما فرمايو كه آ ريكوردنگ پر اعتماد يه واسطے چهے كيمكه عقيدة نا كئينك مهم أصول واسطے ٥١ ما داعي انے ٥٢ ما داعي نا بيانو موثوق انے معتمد چهے (authoritative)، يه ما سي آ كتناك أصول چهے:
• نص خانگي (private conferment) ما تهئي سكے،
• منصوص پوتانا نفس واسطے انے پوتانا favour ما شهادة دئي سكے، ايم بتاوا نے كه داعي يه آپنا اوپر نص كيدي چهے،
• نص إشارة سي تهئي سكے،
• نص ايك وار كيدا پچهي بدلايئ بهي نه انے كهيچائي بهي نه (cannot be changed, revoked or superseded)،
• ماذون نا رتبة نو اعلى مقام انے حقية (credibility) بتاوا واسطے،
سيدنا نو ‘examination in chief’ تمام تهيو انے شهزاده مفضل سيف الدين (defendant) نا senior counsel محترم اقبال چاگلا يه سيدنا فخرالدين نو cross examination شروع كيدو،
اقبال چاگلا يه سيدنا نے آپنا خلفية personal background نا بارا ما گهنا سؤالو پوچها، خاصة سيدنا نا education، آپنا residence، آپنو business، انے آپنا فيملي نا ديگر أمور نا باره ما،
اقبال چاگلا يه سيدنا نے دعوة نا اسرار انے خاص علم نو سؤال كيدو كه جه نا سي آپنے سيدنا قطب الدين (original plaintiff) يه خاص كيدا، انے پوچهوں كه يه علم سكام آپو، سيدنا يه جواب فرمايو كه آ خاص علم آپو تاكه آپ داعي انے دعوة ني خدمة كري سكے، اقبال چاگلا يه پوچهوں كه سيدنا قطب الدين (original plaintiff) سيدنا فخرالدين (plaintiff) سي داعي انے دعوة ني خدمة نو سوں توقع راكهتا تها، سيدنا يه جواب ديدو كه جيم سيدنا قطب الدين يه داعي نے دعوة ني خدمة كيدي ايم، اخلاص (sincerity) انے نشاط (devotion) نا ساتهے،
اقبال چاگلا يه سيدنا نے سؤال كيدو كه جيوارے اختلاف هوئي كه داعي كون چهے تو اهما ماذون نو سوں عمل (role) هوئي، سيدنا فخر الدين يه فرمايو كه داعي كون چهے يه اختلاف نا وقت ما ماذون نو قول معتمد انے موثوق (authoritative) رهيو چهے،
سيدنا فخر الدين نے پوچهو كه آپئے كيوارے ايم جانو كه آپنا باواجيصاحب ٥٣ ما داعي سيدنا خزيمة قطب الدين ٥٢ ما داعي سيدنا محمد برهان الدين نا وارث چهے، سيدنا يه جواب فرمايو كه يه وقت ساتهے زيادة نے زيادة معلوم پرتو گيو (it was a progression )، چهوتي عمر سي جيم وقت زيادة نے زيادة نكلو تيم معلوم پرتو گيو ، انے ٥٢ ما داعي نا شهزاداؤ شهزاديو، جه ما شهزاده مفضل سيف الدين (defendant) شمار چهے، سگلا سيدنا قطب الدين نے سجده ديتا تها، انے ٥٢ ما داعي انے سيدنا قطب الدين نے ساتهے كري نے “بيوے مولى” كهي نے خطاب كرتا تها، يه سگلا نا عمل يه بهي منے ايم زيادة بتايو ،
اقبال چاگلا يه اخبار (newspaper) نو ايك مقالة (article) كورٹ نا evidence ما پيش كيدو، يه مقالة پهلے سيدنا قطب الدين يه آپنا plaint ما پيش كيدو تهو مگر پيشتر شهزاده مفضل سيف الدين (defendant) يه قبول نوتو كيدو، آ نيوز پيپر نا مقالة (article) هندستان نا سابق چيف جستيس نامدار جستيس عزيز احمدي نو قول نقل كرے چهے كه “ميں يه كاغذات غور سي نظر كيدا (examine)نے منے ايم يقين چهے كه سيدنا قطب الدين نو كهؤو كه يه ٥٣ ما داعي چهے اهنو بناء أصول پر چهے” (“I examined the documents and believe that Syeddna Qutbuddin’s stand of the 53rd Dai is principled”)، نامدار جستيس گوتم پٹيل يه آ مقالة نے شهزاده مفضل سيف الدين نا (defendant) نا exhibit نام پاري record پر ليدهو،
نامدار جستيس گوتم پٹيل يه عائنده سيدنا نا cross examination نا واسطے ٨مي، ٩مي انے ١٢ جانيواري ٢٠١٨ تاريخ آپي چهے،
The recording of the evidence of His Holiness Syedna Taher Fakhruddin Saheb (TUS), the Plaintiff in Suit 337/2014, which had been originally filed by his predecessor His Holiness the Late Syedna Khuzaima Qutbuddin Saheb RA in the Hon’ble Bombay High Court, began on the 8th of December 2017 at 12:00pm in the historic Courtroom No. 46, presided over by the Hon’ble Justice Gautam Patel.
The Plaintiff first took the oath, and prayed Bismillah.
The Plaintiff was first examined by his Cousel Mr. Anand Desai of DSK Legal. The Hon’ble Justice Gautam Patel also asked the Plaintiff several questions.
Mr. Desai asked the Plaintiff to explain the origins of the Dawoodi Bohra community. The Plaintiff replied that Dawoodi Bohras are Shia Ismaili Muslims, followers of Imam Ismail AS.. Syedna Saheb explained that Ismaili Shia’s believe that nass of succession, once conferred, cannot be revoked, changed, superseded or replaced and that is a core Dawoodi Bohra theological doctrine. This was the basic difference in belief from the followers of Musa Kazim, who believed that the nass on Ismail was revoked, and nass was then conferred on Musa Kazim by Imam Jafer us-Sadiq.
(An issue is of central importance in this succession case is that the defendant, Shehzada Mufaddal Saifuddin, is saying that nass can be revoked, superseded, replaced or changed.)
Mr. Desai asked the Plaintiff about the sources of doctrinal knowledge in the Dawoodi Bohra community. The Plaintiff answered that in the hierarchy of texts, the highest would be the Holy Qur’an, the hadith of Mohammed Rasulullah SA, and the sayings of the Imams. At the same level are books of the Dais. The Plaintiff explained that the books are like notes, and it is the oral interpretations provided by the Dais that are considered the highest level, as they are the authentic interpretations of the texts.
The Plaintiff said that he is also relying on oral interpretations given by the 51st Dai His Holiness the Late Syedna Taher Saifuddin Saheb RA and the 52nd Dai His Holiness the Late Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin Saheb RA to establish issues of belief and doctrine in this case.
The Hon’ble Justice Gautam Patel asked the Plaintiff whether it is important or necessary for others to know of the conferment of nass at or around the time when it is conferred. The Plaintiff replied that it is not compulsory or necessary, and that there are historical precedents of keeping such a conferment private, including to prevent opposing forces from attempting a disruption in the chosen order of Dais.
Mr. Desai asked the Plaintiff to provide an explanation for the case of private nass, where the nass is communicated only from the appointer to the appointed. The Plaintiff answered that not only is this possible, but gave several historical examples of when this has been previously done. The Plaintiff also stated that he has personally heard the 52nd Dai on multiple occasions say that private nass is valid and there are audio recordings of the 51st Dai saying this.
Mr. Desai asked the Plaintiff to explain the case where a mansoos (successor) dies before he assumes office as Dai. The Plaintiff explained that once nass is conferred, the mansoos has already reached the high station in this world and will attain the same high station in heaven. The Dai would anoint a new mansoos by conferring nass on him in case his mansoos passes away during the lifetime of the Dai. In support of this, among other examples, the Plaintiff quoted the Holy Quran (Ch. 19: Verse 53: 53rd verse of Surat Maryam) which states that Prophet Haroon (Aaron), the mansoos (appointed successor) of Prophet Musa (Moses), is referred to as having the same station as Musa himself, that of Nabi (Prophet). Another mansoos was appointed after Prophet Haroon passed away.
Mr. Desai asked the Plaintiff what is the difference between Sajda (prostration) of worship and Sajda to an Imam or his Dai. The Plaintiff replied that the Sajda for worship can be done only to Allah (God); Sajda to an Imam or his Dai is also denoted as ‘taqbeel al ard’ (meaning kissing of the ground) and is the highest form of respect.
(This point is important because the Plaintiff’s case is that sajda is only done to an Imam, Imam-to-be, his Dai or Dai-to-be. The Defendant and his brothers used to perform Sajda to the Original Plaintiff Syedna Khuzaima Qutbuddin Saheb.)
Mr. Desai also asked whether there are any expressions used to jointly refer to the Dai and the Mazoon. The Plaintiff, illustratively, named the following:
The Mazoon is the right hand of the Dai and jointly takes up the work of the Dawat
The Dai and the Mazoon are the spiritual parents of the people of Dawat
The Mazoon is the true friend of the Dai and witness upon the believers
The Plaintiff also offered testimony about the photos taken when Syedna Burhanuddin RA viewed the handwritten misaal (letter) written by the 51st Dai Syedna Taher Saifuddin Saheb RA to Syedna Khuzaima Qutbuddin Saheb RA. Syedna Burhanuddin and Syedna Qutbuddin are visible in the photographs and Syedna Fakhruddin took the photographs. The misaal has clear indications by the 51st Dai that the Original Plaintiff would be the 53rd Dai.
The Hon’ble Justice Gautam Patel asked the Plaintiff the reasons for wanting to rely on audio and video recordings of the 51st and 52nd Dais sermons. The Plaintiff replied that he is relying on these as they are the authoritative pronouncements by the 51st Dai and 52nd Dai on several key doctrinal beliefs, including:
There can be a private conferment of nass
That the mansoos can testify for himself and in favour of himself to show that the Dai conferred nass on him
That a nass can be conferred with an indication
That a nass once conferred cannot be changed, revoked or superseded
To show the high credibility and station of the rank of Mazoon
The examination in chief concluded and Senior Counsel Mr. Iqbal Chagla for the defendant Shehzada Mufaddal Saifuddin, began his cross-examination.
Mr. Chagla asked many questions about the Plaintiff’s personal background, inquiring in detail into his educational background, places of residence, business dealings, and also other family related matters.
Mr. Chagla asked the Plaintiff about the special knowledge and Dawat secrets bestowed upon him by the Original Plaintiff, inquiring into their purpose. He replied that the reason for bestowing such knowledge was so that he “could serve the Dawat and the Dai”. Mr. Chagla asked how the Original Plaintiff expected the Plaintiff to serve Dawat and the Dai. He replied: “In the way he had served them, with sincerity and devotion.”
Mr. Chagla questioned the Plaintiff about the role of the Mazoon in settling disputes relating to the identity of the true Dai, and Syedna Fakhruddin indicated that in previous disputes, the word of the Mazoon was taken as authoritative in determining the true Dai.
Syedna Fakhruddin was asked when he believed that his father, the 53rd Dai Syedna Khuzaima Qutbuddin Saheb was the successor to the 52nd Dai. He replied that it was a progression from childhood and the actions of the 52nd Dai’s children, including the defendant, all of whom offered Sajda to Syedna Qutbuddin, and jointly referred to the 52nd Dai and Syedna Qutbuddin Saheb as “Bewe Moula” (Both Moula), contributed to this belief.
Mr. Chagla also entered into evidence a newspaper article that the Plaintiff had brought in his Plaint, but which was not earlier admitted by the Defendant. This newspaper article quoted the former Chief Justice of India, the Hon’ble Justice Aziz M. Ahmadi saying that “I examined the documents and believe that Syedna Qutbuddin’s stand of the 53rd Dai is principled”. The Hon’ble Justice Patel took this document on record as the Defendant’s exhibit.
The Hon’ble Justice Patel has scheduled the further cross-examination of the Plaintiff on 8th, 9th, and 12th of January 2018.
After more than two years of research with collaboration between philosophers, religious thinkers and psychologists, the Virtue, Happiness & the Meaning of Lifeproject will present its findings at a capstone conference on Oct. 13 and 14, featuring keynote talks by Prof. Jonathan Lear and Cardinal Blase J. Cupich.
The conference culminates a project that brought scholars together from around the world to examine the enrichment of human life. Research in both the humanities and social sciences suggests that people who feel they belong to something bigger than themselves—be it family, a spiritual practice, or work in social justice—are often happier than those who do not. Scholars refer to the feeling as “self-transcendence.”
Panelists throughout both days, including scholars from religious studies, theology, philosophy, psychology, and economics, will discuss whether self-transcendence truly makes people happier and provides deeper meaning in human life.
Speakers from the University of Chicago include Candace Vogler, the David B. and Clara E. Stern Professor of Philosophy and co-principal investigator for the project; Marc Berman, assistant professor in psychology; and Tahera Qutbuddin, professor of Arabic literature.
“This conference serves to share our research with the broader community,” said Jennifer A. Frey, co-principal investigator, assistant professor of philosophy at the University of South Carolina and formerly a scholar at the University of Chicago. “Our scholars from a variety of disciplines have reached similar conclusions about the essential role of self-transcendence in the general account of what makes for potential happiness and meaning in human lives. Our hope is that as this project winds down, we are only at the beginning of a new line of research.”
Lear, the John U. Nef Distinguished Service Professor in the Committee on Social Thought and the Department of Philosophy, will speak at 7 p.m. Oct. 13 at the Oriental Institute. His talk, titled “Gettysburg,” will look at the ethical difficulties of memorializing the dead and in particular the soldiers that died following the bloodiest battle of the U.S. Civil War.
Cardinal Cupich will speak at 6 p.m. Oct. 14 in the auditorium at the Law School. He will deliver a talk considering virtue in the context of building up the common good, titled “A Consistent Ethic of Solidarity: Transcending Self, Transforming the World.” President Robert J. Zimmer will introduce the cardinal.
“Cardinal Cupich has distinguished himself in his fundamental love of and concern for some of the most disadvantaged people in the city of Chicago,” said Vogler. “His call for solidarity is rooted in the genuine practice of solidarity, day in and day out.”
Hikaayat (lit. stories) refers to the morals and fables that are presented in the books of Da’wat. Many of these hikaayat are presented in the Rasail of Ikhwanus Safa. Below is an excerpt from the hikayat, “The Doves” (translated by Dr Shatha Almutawa) presented with illustrations by Tahera Vajihi. This narrative is about a magpie that gets caught up with a group of fighting doves.
Candace Vogler, the David B. and Clara E. Stern Professor in Philosophy, is invested in her fellow human beings, and she’s determined to help them—us—find fulfillment. To tackle such a complex issue, she proposed the collaborative research project Virtue, Happiness, and the Meaning of Life, the aims of which are every bit as ambitious as its name implies. With major support from the John Templeton Foundation, this multiyear initiative—jointly led by Jennifer A. Frey, a philosopher at the University of South Carolina—explores self-transcendence: a feeling of connection to something beyond the individual self.
Of course, there’s no single way for human beings to attain self-transcendence: it can happen through spiritual practice, professional drive, familial bonds, or any number of commitments to a higher cause. Vogler’s group includes psychologists, philosophers, and religious thinkers from a variety of traditions. Many are UChicago colleagues: assistant professor Marc G. Berman and professor Howard C. Nusbaum in Psychology, associate professor Tahera Qutbuddin in Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, and, in Philosophy, assistant professor Matthias Haase and Josef Stern, the William H. Colvin Professor Emeritus. The 30-scholar cohort represents institutions throughout the United States, Middle East, and Europe; they have been meeting and teaching since October 2015.
When she devised the project, Vogler says, “The ambition was to get a kind of deep integration between people working in very different disciplines” without relegating their work to the margins of less widely read, explicitly interdisciplinary publications. And it worked: the participants are “doing disciplinary work, they’re publishing in the disciplinary journals, and the inspiration for it is coming out of the frame of the project.”
These discussions have informed 10 published or forthcoming articles—a figure that “pretty dramatically exceeded” her initial expectations—with many more on the way. One essay that encapsulates the spirit of the project is being developed by Notre Dame theologian Jean Porter, about studies by Cornell University psychologist Katherine Kinzler on early childhood food preferences. Porter finds parallels between contemporary psychology and the views of Catholic philosopher Thomas Aquinas on the influence of group identity on what children choose to eat. (A draft is available on the Virtue Blog, along with other writings and filmed lectures.) This video helps to introduce and contextualize the group’s scholarship.
Like Porter’s essay, much of the project is “built on things that ought to be super interesting to people who are not academics,” says Vogler. She hopes a broad audience will attend the culminating conference at UChicago over the weekend of October 14–15. From there, Vogler plans to share her team’s findings with educators—from early childhood through MBA programs and beyond—to help promote self-transcendence at every stage of development. “There’s a big difference,” she points out, “between leading a life that’s super busy and leading a life that’s full.” Her hope is that the group’s work, as it reverberates out into the broader world, will help people achieve the latter.
We’re presenting a short series of abstracts of the work-in-progress our scholars will present and discuss at their June 2017 Working Group Meeting.
Tahera Qutbuddin is Associate Professor of Arabic Literature at the University of Chicago.
1. Chapter on “The Sermon of Pious Counsel,” from my monograph project currently underway titled Classical Arabic Oratory: Religion, Politics and Oral Aesthetics of Public Address in the Early Islamic World.
Abstract: Showcasing a unique outlook on the purpose of human life in the early Islamic world of the seventh and eighth centuries, the sermon of pious counsel was one of the four major types of Arabic oration. Rooted in the pre-Islamic desert-dweller’s deep consciousness of cosmic cycles and human mortality, it was channeled toward priming for the afterlife by the monotheistic vision of Muhammad and the Qurʾan. Pious counsel also permeated the other three categories: Friday sermons were an obvious repository of devotional material, but battle speeches and political orations were also frequently framed in a pietistic vein. The orator concentrated on reminding his audience of the inevitability of death, the necessity of leading a pious and principled life preparing for an imminent hereafter, and remaining at all times conscious of God. The chapter I am submitting for our Workshop examines these key themes and their religious and ethical subthemes with copious textual examples. In addition, it outlines the sermon’s historical development, formulae and patterns, and briefly describes concurrent non-oratorical genres of pious counsel. It ends with the text, translation and analysis of an illustrative sermon attributed to a commander of the Kharijite “Seceders,” Qatari ibn al-Fujaʾah (d. ca. 698).
2. Short paper titled “Imam Ali’s Preaching of Peace and Pluralism: Five Categories of Exhortations to Justice, Equity and Compassion from The Path of Eloquence (Nahj al-balaghah) and A Treasury of Virtues (Dustur maʿalim al-hikam )”—expanded write-up from presentation originally prepared for UNESCO World Philosophy Day, 2014, Paris, at a conference titled: The Contribution of Ali ibn Abi Talib’s Thought to a Culture of Peace & Intercultural Dialogue.
Abstract: Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib’s (d. 661) strong advocacy of peace and pluralism is well known and works on multiple levels of individual, society and state. In this paper, I present five broad categories of these early Islamic teachings through a selection of Ali’s sayings, sermons, letters and verse: (1) seeking justice and abstaining from vengeance; (2) pluralism; (3) focus on the hereafter, not worldly gain; (4) personal ethics: respect and sanctity of living creatures; and (5) the role of government.
Hikaayat (lit. stories) refers to the morals and fables that are presented in the books of Da’wat. Many of these hikaayat are presented in the Rasail of Ikhwanus Safa. Below is an excerpt from the hikayat, “The Man and the Fish” (translated by Dr Shatha Almutawa) presented with illustrations by Tahera Vajihi. This narrative is about a man who jumps into a raging river to catch a fish for dinner.
The Qutbi Jubilee Scholarship Program (QJSP) was founded by our revered father, Syedna Khuzaima Qutbuddin RA on the eve of the Golden Jubilee celebrations in 2011. These celebrations commemorated the completion of Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin’s RA 50 years as the 52nd Dai-l-Mutlaq and also the 50 years of Syedna Qutbuddin as the trusted Mazoon-l-Mutlaq of […]
The Hon’ble Justice Gautam Patel of the Bombay High Court allowed Chamber Summons No. 1290 of 2016 in Suit No. 337 of 2014, whereby His Holiness Syedna Taher Fakhruddin Saheb TUS has been substituted as the Plaintiff after the sad demise of the Original Plaintiff His Holiness the Late Syedna Khuzaima Qutbuddin RA. Syedna Taher Fakhruddin Saheb will now continue the suit against Shehzada Mufaddal Saifuddin to establish that Syedna Fakhruddin Saheb is the 54th Dai al-Mutlaq of the Dawoodi Bohra Community after establishing that Syedna Khuzaima Qutbuddin was the 53rd Dai al-Mutlaq. Shehzada Mufaddal Saifuddin and his respresentatives had claimed the suit had abated and that he had won the Suit after the sad demise of Syedna Khuziama Qutbuddin. The Hon’ble High Court has also fixed a timetable for carrying out the amendments, the Defendant to file an additional written statement, and has listed the Succesion Suit for directions in May 2017 itself. This is a very positive step towards resolving the issue of the rightful successor to the 52nd Dai His Holiness the Late Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin RA and for the future of the Dawoodi Bohra Community.
We are pleased to present the latest article in this series which explains a selection of ideas from the PhD thesis submitted to the University of Manchester by Shehzada Dr Abdeali Bhaisaheb ibn Syedna Khuzaima Qutbuddin RA. (The PhD was completed in 2003 with the raza and doa Mubarak of Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin RA).
Hikaayat (lit. stories) refers to the morals and fables that are presented in the books of Da’wat. Many of these Hikaayat are presented in the Rasail of Ikhwanus Safa. The morals presented in these stories often highlight the transience of this world and the importance of the goodness of character. We are pleased to present a selection of these Hikaayats on Fatemidawat.com.
We are pleased to present the third article in this series which explains a selection of ideas from the PhD thesis submitted to the University of Manchester by Shehzada Dr Abdeali Bhaisaheb ibn Syedna Khuzaima Qutbuddin RA. (The PhD was completed in 2003 with the raza and doa Mubarak of Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin RA).
These remarks correspond to our latest Virtue Talk podcast with Tahera Qutbuddin, which you can listen to here.
I grew up in Mumbai, India, studied Arabic at Ayn Shams University in Cairo, Egypt, and came to Harvard University in the US for my PhD, which I completed in 1999. After that, I taught for a year at Yale University, then for two years at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City. In 2002, I joined the University of Chicago, where I’m currently Associate Professor of Arabic Literature in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations (NELC). At the University of Chicago, I’m also affiliated with the Center for Middle Eastern Studies (CMES), the Committee on South Asian Studies (COSAS), and the Divinity School. And for the past six years, I’ve chaired a non-traditional major in the College named Interdisciplinary Studies in the Humanities (IS-Hum).
My work centers on classical Arabic literature. I have a deep interest in literary materials of the early Islamic period that preach virtue, which is my connection with the Virtues group of scholars. Overall, my scholarship focuses on intersections of the literary, the religious, and the political in classical Arabic poetry and prose. My areas of research are classical Arabic oratory and Islamic preaching (khutba); the Quran, traditions of the Prophet Muhammad, and the sermons and sayings of the first Shia imam and fourth Sunni caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib; and Fatimid-Tayyibi history and literature (the Fatimids were a Shia dynasty who ruled North Africa and Egypt from the 10th through the 12th centuries, and the Tayyibis are a Muslim denomination in Yemen and India, who look to the Fatimid legacy). I’ve also worked on Arabic in India.
My first journal article, which I published in 1995 while I was a graduate student at Harvard, was titled “Healing the Soul: Perspectives of Medieval Muslim Writers.” I discussed the ideas of certain key scholars in the Islamic tradition who used the metaphor of the physician and healing to promote virtue and faith. I found that the earliest accounts were based in either Greek ethics or the Qur’an, and the Greek aspects were rendered over three centuries into an Islamic matrix.
In my first monograph—published by Brill in 2005 titled Al-Mu’ayyad al-Shirazi and Fatimid Da’wa Poetry: A Case of Commitment in Classical Arabic Literature—I combined material and approaches from several disciplines to analyze the poetry of the 11th century scholar, al-Muʾayyad al-Shīrāzī, who was chief missionary for the Fatimid caliphs of Egypt. Al-Mu’ayyad is acknowledged as a giant in the Fatimid philosophical tradition, but none had worked on his poetry before. Because it is underpinned by esoteric doctrine, its true significance cannot be decoded without careful perusal of its philosophy and history. I found and used manuscripts of his poetry housed in private collections in India, and I also used an eclectic package of literary, historical, and theological primary sources, many of them also in manuscript form. I argued that al-Muʾayyad flew in the face of the rival Abbasid court’s conventional panegyric to create a new, very personal, “committed” form of Arabic poetry, with themes, imagery, and audiences consonant with his religio-political cause.
My currently ongoing monograph project is tentatively titled Classical Arabic Oratory:Religion, Politics and Orality-Based Aesthetics of Public Address in the Early Islamic World, for which I’m honored to have been awarded fellowships by the Carnegie Corporation and the American Council of Learned Societies. In the 7th and 8th centuries AD, oration was a crucial piece of the Arabian literary landscape, reigning supreme as its preeminent genre of prose. It was an integral component of pre-Islamic and early Islamic leadership, and it also had significant political, military and religious functions. Its themes and aesthetics had enormous influence on subsequent artistic prose. Little has come forth on the subject, due to substantial challenges posed by an archaic lexicon (these are hard texts to crack!), a vast array of sources, and the sticky question of dating. But I believe an approach sensitive to its oral underpinnings can meaningfully delineate key parameters of the genre. I’m analyzing the texts and contexts of these earliest Arabic speeches and sermons, and I hope to construct thereby the first comprehensive theory of classical Arabic oratory.
In the past five years, much of my intellectual energy has been directed to a new publication series titled “Library of Arabic Literature,” and it has been a joy and a privilege to be part of this emerging venture. In 2010, I was invited to its newly-forming Editorial Board, whose mandate is to produce facing-page Arabic editions and English translations of significant works of Arabic literature, with an emphasis on the 7th to 19th centuries, encompassing a wide range of genres, including poetry, religion, philosophy, law, science, and history. The project is supported by a grant from the New York University Abu Dhabi Institute, and its volumes are published by NYU Press. Its Editorial Board comprises a team of Arabic/Islamic professors at educational institutions in the US and UK. We meet twice a year in New York and Abu Dhabi, and in the first five years, we have produced a resounding 35 volumes. In 2015, our grant was renewed for another five years, and in this second phase we aim to bring out an additional 40 volumes.
Many of the really important texts of early Islamic literature remain in manuscript form, and many have not been translated into English, or have been translated in less than lucid renderings. In addition to my analytical research work, I’m also committed to making these masterpieces of Arabic literature available in reliable editions and engaging translations, especially those among them that promote virtue and contemplation.
In this context, I edited and translated a volume of Sayings, Sermons, and Teachings of Ali ibn Abi Talib, whom I mentioned before, who was the cousin and son in law of the prophet Muhammad, and the first Shia imam and the fourth Sunni caliph. (Library of Arabic Literature, NYU Press, 2013). The volume was compiled by al-Quda’i, who was a judge in medieval Cairo. The book is titled A Treasury of Virtues, and in beautiful desert metaphors and brilliantly pithy Arabic, it enjoins universal human virtues such as justice, wisdom, and kindness, presenting them in an Islamic and Quranic framework. For example, “ The best words are backed by deeds” “Oppressing the weak is the worst oppression” “Knowledge is a noble legacy” “The true worth of a man is measured by the good he does” “There is no treasure richer than contentment” “A just leader is better than abundant rainfall.”
I’ve recently completed editing and translating another volume for the series, this one being a compilation of the ethical and doctrinal sayings of the prophet Muhammad titled Light in the Heavens, by the same compiler, al-Quda’i. In a happy coincidence, its release date is today, November 8. The prophet Muḥammad (d. 632) is regarded by Muslims as God’s messenger to humankind. In addition to God’s words—the Qurʾan—which he conveyed over the course of his life as it was revealed to him, Muḥammad’s own words—called hadith—have a very special place in the lives of Muslims. They wield an authority second only to the Qurʾan and are cited by Muslims as testimonial texts in a wide array of religious, scholarly and popular literature—such as liturgy, exegesis, jurisprudence, oration, poetry, linguistics and more. Preachers, politicians and scholars rely on hadith to establish the truth of their positions, and lay people cite them to each other in their daily lives. These hadith disclose the ethos of the earliest period of Islam, the culture and society of 7th century Arabia. Since they also form an integral part of the Muslim psyche, they reveal the values and thinking of the medieval and modern Muslim community. Most importantly, they provide a direct window into the inspired vision of one of the most influential humans in history. These are a few sample hadith from the volume, which list traits that God loves: “God loves gentleness in everything,” “God is beautiful and loves beauty,” “God loves those who beseech him,” “God loves those who are virtuous, humble, and pious,” “God loves the believer who makes an honest living,” “God loves the grieving heart”.
Among the recent articles I’ve published, some are on Ali’s preaching. In one recent article I examine Ali’s melding of core Islamic teachings of the Quran enjoining piety and good works, with the oral, nature-based cultural ethos of seventh-century Arabia. Another recent article—and this is the one I shared with the Virtue scholars’ group in December—looks at Ali’s contemplations on this world and the hereafter in the context of his life and times. I argue that Ali encourages his followers to enjoy a happy life on earth and be grateful for God’s innumerable blessings, yet always keep preparing for the imminent hereafter, by cultivating virtuous traits and performing virtuous deeds. I’d like to read out to you a short excerpt from one of his sermons from this article:
O you who reproach this world while being so willingly deceived by her deceptions and tricked by her falsehoods! Do you choose to be deceived by her yet censure her? Should you be accusing her, or should she be accusing you?! When did she lure you or deceive? Was it by her destruction of your father and grandfather and great grandfather through decay? Or by her consigning your mother and grandmother and great grandmother to the earth? How carefully did your palms tend them! How tenderly did your hands nurse them! Hoping against hope for a cure, begging physician after physician for a medicament. On that fateful morning, your medicines did not suffice them, your weeping did not help, and your apprehension was of no benefit. Your appeal remained unanswered, and you could not push death away from them although you applied all your strength. By this, the world warned you of your own approaching end. She illustrated by their death your own.
Indeed, this world is a house of truth for whomsoever stays true to her, a house of wellbeing for whomsoever understands her, a house of riches for whomsoever gathers her provisions, a house of counsel for whomsoever takes her advice. She is a mosque for God’s loved ones, a place where God’s angels pray, where God’s revelation alights, where God’s saints transact, earning his mercy and profiting paradise.
In addition to the publications I’ve talked about, I always look to avail of opportunities to reach outside the ivory tower, and have lectured over the years on general topics related to Islamic history and Arabic literature, particularly on topics that promote goodwill among the human family. Two years ago, I gave a talk on “Imam Ali’s Preaching of Peace and Pluralism” at a UNESCO conference in Paris organized by its Iraq office titled “The contribution of Ali ibn Abi Talib’s Thought to a Culture of Peace and Intercultural Dialogue.” Just recently in September of this year I helped organize a conference in Kolkata, India, on exemplars of communal harmony in pre- and post-Independence India, that was hosted jointly by my father’s educational foundation Qutbi Jubilee Scholarship Program (QJSP) and the University of Calcutta, and was attended by the Vice Chancellor of the University of Calcutta, and the West Bengal Minister for Higher Education, and widely covered by the local media.
I’m very pleased to be part of the Templeton Foundation’s project Virtue, Happiness, and the Meaning of Life. I’m grateful to the Templeton Foundation for funding it, and to Candace Vogler for inviting me to participate. This has been a wonderful opportunity for me to expand my horizons, and bring my work into conversation with the major Western philosophical and theological traditions. I’ve especially enjoyed the practical perspectives of psychology and economics brought by the social scientists in the group on questions of virtue and happiness. It’s been a privilege to listen to these amazing scholars.
I’ve found many parallels with the classical Islamic traditions I work with, and hope to make use of these new insights and apply them to my own work. For example, many of the group’s scholars work on Thomas Aquinas, and the harmony of faith and reason that is expressed in his teachings resonates with several schools of Islamic thought, especially one that I work with, the Fatimid-Ismaili school. Others work on Aristotle, and his cardinal virtues of justice, temperance, wisdom, and courage are strongly reflected in the early Islamic aphoristic material, and in the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad and Imam Ali. The material my colleagues on the Virtue Scholars team work on is itself fascinating, and the questions and methodologies they bring to bear on it are equally illuminating.
I’m also happy to have the opportunity to present some Islamic approaches to virtue, to these scholars who may not have engaged with the Islamic tradition in any depth before.
A significant prompt that has come out of this workshop for me is a renewed emphasis on the importance of harnessing ideas to promote virtue and happiness on the ground. This is academic work, but it’s also very personal. The research on the hows and whys of a meaningful life discussed at the workshop is really valuable. For me, the natural corollary to the expert analysis is how to translate this information into becoming a better human being myself, and to work toward promoting kindness and virtue in the many communities I’m part of. The research, both individual and collaborative is important. But it’s equally important to think about how to use that practically to be a nice, kind person oneself, and to promote niceness and kindness among the people we live. I’m delighted to be part of this ambitious project, and I hope that together we can make a difference, and offer some contribution to a better and more peaceful world.
Tahera Qutbuddin is Associate Professor of Arabic Literature at the University of Chicago and Scholar with the project Virtue, Happiness, & the Meaning of Life.
Click the link below to hear our scholar and Professor of Arabic Literature Tahera Qutbuddin discuss her research and recent books A Treasury of Virtues: Sayings, Sermons, and Teachings of ‘Ali, and Light in the Heavens: Sayings of the Prophet Muhammad, and how her research is impacted by working within our project.
The text of these remarks will be available on our next blog post.
The date for hearing the Chamber Summons filed by His Holiness Syedna Taher Fakhruddin TUS, in the Hon’ble Bombay High Court has been fixed for 7th December 2016 by the Hon’ble Justice K. R. Shriram.
The Chamber Summons seeks the substitution of Syedna Taher Fakhruddin as the Plaintiff in the Suit filed by his predecessor His Holiness the Late Syedna Khuzaima Qutbuddin RA against Shehzada Mufaddal Saifuddin.
The Hon’ble Gujarat High Court has pronounced an order (Civil Application No. 5650 of 2016) granting the applications filed by Syedna Taher Fakhruddin Saheb TUS and permitting Syedna Taher Fakhruddin Saheb TUS to be substituted in the place and stead of his predecessor Syedna Qutbuddin Saheb RA in pending petitions and dismissing Civil Application No. 4339 of 2016 filed by Shehzada Mufaddal Saifuddin. On 10.11.2016, all the applications were listed for pronouncement of judgment before the Hon’ble Gujarat High Court. The Judgement is available to view on the Gujarat High Court website
Syedna Qutbuddin Saheb sadly passed away in the USA on 30th March 2016. Upon his passing away, his successor Syedna Taher Fakhruddin Saheb filed applications before the Hon’ble Gujarat High Court praying for substitution as petitioner in his place. In the applications, Syedna Fakhruddin Saheb stated that immediately after the passing away of Syedna Qutbuddin Saheb, Shehzada Mufaddal Saifuddin and his men had filed applications/affidavits/purchis before Assistant Charity Commissioners with the objective of getting their Change Reports allowed ex-parte by falsely stating on oath that the Hon’ble Bombay High Court had dismissed the suit filed by Syedna Qutbuddin Saheb. Shehzada Mufaddal Saifuddin and his men were trying to take advantage of the passing away of Syedna Qutbuddin Saheb with the objective of getting their Change Reports allowed ex-parte.
Shehzada Mufaddal Saifuddin had also filed Civil Application No. 4339 of 2016 before the Hon’ble Gujarat High Court praying for an order that the petition filed by Syedna Qutbuddin Saheb be disposed of as abated and praying that the Charity Commissioners be directed to proceed with Change Reports.
Upon the sad passing away of the 52nd Dai al-Mutlaq of the Dawoodi Bohra community Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin Saheb in January 2014, a succession dispute arose between Syedna Khuzaima Qutbuddin Saheb, Mazoon for 50 years and Shehzada Mufaddal Saifuddin. Syedna Qutbuddin Saheb filed a suit in the Hon’ble Bombay High Court for a declaration that he was the anointed successor of the 52nd Dai al-Mutlaq and, therefore, the 53rd Dai al-Mutlaq. Syedna Qutbuddin Saheb also filed petitions before the Hon’ble Gujarat High Court pertaining to a large number of Waqfs and Trusts of which the Dai is the Sole Trustee.
Syedna Taher Fakhruddin Saheb’s Chamber Summons in the Hon’ble Bombay High Court to be substituted as Plaintiff in the Suit filed by Syedna Qutbuddin is scheduled for hearing and final disposal by the Hon’ble Justice Shriram on the 7th of December 2016.
Our Scholar Tahera Qutbuddin gave this public lecture in September 2015 as part of “Sayings, Sermons, and Teachings of Imam Ali: Islamic Wisdom and Universal Values,” an invited talk in the public lecture series “Islam in Conversation” for the Office of Religious Life: Muslim Life Program at Princeton University.
Tahera Qutbuddin is Associate Professor of Arabic Literature, The University of Chicago, and a Scholar with Virtue, Happiness, & the Meaning of Life.
The Chamber Summons filed by His Holiness Syedna Taher Fakhruddin TUS was listed to be heard by the Hon’ble Bombay High Court on October 19, 2016. The matter did not get heard for paucity of time during the day, and on October 20, 2016 our advocates mentioned the matter before the Hon’ble Bombay High Court, when the Hon’ble Court directed that the chamber summons be listed for Directions on November 15, 2016, after the Diwali vacation.
Continuing the hasanat of Syedna Qutbuddin RA, Hizb-e-Khalilullah organized qurbani and taqseem in Eid-ul-Adha this year with Syedna Fakhruddin’s TUS raza and doa in Darus Sakina, Mumbai.
A detailed report of key facts and financial figures of Eid-ul-Adha activities has been prepared in keeping with Syedna’s vision that organizations functioning under the umbrella of Dawat should be run professionally with clear transparency.
The unabridged report including financial data has been shared with those who participated in the effort. An abridged version, without the financial data, has been published here on FatemiDawat.com
The date for hearing the Chamber Summons filed by His Holiness Syedna Taher Fakhruddin TUS, in the Hon’ble Bombay Court has been fixed for 19th October 2016 by the Hon’ble Justice K. R. Shriram.
The Chamber Summons seeks the substitution of Syedna Taher Fakhruddin as the Plaintiff in the Suit filed by his predecessor His Holiness the Late Syedna Khuzaima Qutbuddin RA against Shehzada Mufaddal Saifuddin.
We are pleased to present the section article in this series which explains a selection of ideas from the PhD thesis submitted to the University of Manchester by Shehzada Dr Abdeali Bhaisaheb ibn Syedna Khuzaima Qutbuddin RA. (The PhD was completed in 2003 with the raza and doa Mubarak of Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin RA). In this article are the following sections:
Section 1: What exactly is riba and why is it haraam?
Section 2: How can we transform a riba transaction, which is haraam, into a trade transaction, which is halaal, through the ‘Ina contract?
Section 3: Are there instances of Aimmat Tahereen and Duat Mutlaqeen endorsing ‘Ina and employing the ‘Ina contract?
Section 4: How can the ‘Ina contract be applied in the world of modern banking?
(C) FatemiDawat.com 2016
We are pleased to present the 1437H Annual Report of Dawat-e-Hadiyah, the Fatemi Dawat administration of the 54th Dai al-Mutlaq Syedna Taher Fakhruddin TUS. Last year in Shehre Ramadan 1436H, Syedna Khuzaima Qutbuddin RA instructed the publication of a report of Dawat activities and the first Fatemi Dawat Annual Report was published.
His Holiness Syedna Taher Fakhruddin TUS, the 54th Dai al-Mutlaq has filed a Chamber Summons on the 27th of June 2016 in the Hon’ble High Court of Bombay to be substituted as plaintiff in the Suit filed by his predecessor His Holiness the Late Syedna Khuzaima Qutbuddin RA, the 53rd Dai al-Mutlaq against Shehzada Mufaddal Saifuddin.
Syedna Qutbuddin sadly passed away to his heavenly abode on 30th March 2016 in California, USA. Before his passing Syedna Qutbuddin had appointed his eldest son Syedna Taher Fakhruddin as his Mansoos (successor) on 8th November 2015.
Prior to filing the Suit in Hon’ble High Court the Late Syedna Khuzaima Qutbuddin RA had made repeated attempts to resolve this unfortunate issue internally within the Community, inviting Shehzada Mufaddal Saifuddin to a debate to establish the truthfulness of the nass conferred on him by His Holiness the Late Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin Saheb RA , the 52nd Dai al-Mutlaq. Shehzada Mufaddal Saifuddin did not respond to that call. Syedna Taher Fakhruddin also invited Shehzada Mufaddal Saifuddin to a debate according to the precedents of the community, and in the interests of resolving this matter, which affects the whole community. But Shehzada Mufaddal Saifuddin has not responded to that invitation either.
To ensure that the path set by the previous Dai al-Mutlaq’s is followed, and the Community is not torn asunder by false claimants, and having full faith in the Indian Judiciary, Syedna Fakhruddin has approached the Hon’ble High Court for appropriate remedies.
In a statement Syedna Fakhruddin said “Since Shehzada Mufaddal Saifuddin is unwilling to resolve the matter internally through a debate to establish the truth, we have approached the Hon’ble Court, in which we have full faith, with evidence that will expose the falsehoods being perpetuated by Shehzada Mufaddal Saifuddin. I will continue the fight that my revered father Syedna Qutbuddin started, for truth, justice, and the future and well-being of the Dawoodi Bohra community”
The Suit 337 of 2014 was filed by His Holiness Syedna Khuzaima Qutbuddin Saheb against Shehzada Mufaddal Saifuddin in the Hon’ble High Court of Bombay in April 2014. Cross-examination of Syedna Qutbuddin started on 27th April 2015 and was ongoing when His Holiness sadly passed away.
We were thrilled to have our 2016 Working Group Chicago Meeting at the University of Chicago’s Neubuaer Collegium, and extend the conversation during meals at restaurants all over the South Side of Chicago.
Our 2nd working group meeting of scholars met June 6-10, 2016 at the University of Chicago in the beautiful Neubauer Collegium for Culture and Society. Although the sessions were closed, you can read our scholars’ abstracts for their June Meeting Topics here and see more photos up in our Flickr album for the week.
This coming week (June 6-10, 2016, at the Neubauer Collegium at the University of Chicago) is the second of four meetings for our scholars (the first was December 2015 at the University of South Carolina). These meetings are immersive experiences for these scholars, who are philosophers, theologians, and psychologists; the meetings are aimed at generating systematic and integrated knowledge, including ultimately a new construct for empirical research on self-transcendence, new instruments of assessment, and new data.
Here are summaries of the questions and research our scholars will be discussing with each other in the coming week.
Matthias Haase: Can virtue be cultivated like a habit?
Tahera Qutbudden: Can one enjoy a happy and pleasurable life in this world while also preparing for the next?
Jennifer A. Frey: Is selfishness a particular kind of vice, or the nature of vice?
David Schatz: Is ignorance always a vice, or can it also be a virtue?
Heather C. Lench: Can boredom lead us to virtue?
David Carr: Does spirituality have a material dimension, and if so, can it be developed and educated?
Mari Stuart: Can the indigenous knowledge reflected in a moral ecology worldview teach things that climate science cannot?
Jean Porter: Can malice, like virtue, also give meaning to life?
Erik Angner: Is social well-being the same thing as happiness?
Paul Wong: Is it possible to measure Self-Transcendence?
Katharine Kinzler: Can infant food preferences teach us about the social world?
Mark Berman: Do ugly surroundings encourage criminal behavior?
Angela Knobel: Can the notion of virtue as a gift from God have broad appeal?
Father Thomas Joseph White: Can Aquinas help us understand Nietzsche’s ideas about truth and moral freedom?
Michael Gorman: Is a meaningful life also necessarily a good life?
Nancy Snow: Is magnificence—expenditure for the public good—virtuous, or vicious? Can it be both?
Tal Brewer: Are human beings irreplaceable, and due special forms of regard and good treatment?
Dan McAdams: What is the difference between habit and character? Do we narrate these things about ourselves in different ways?
Reinhard Hütter: How do we overcome the lure of self-sovereignty that surrounds us and attain true self-transcendence?
Father Kevin Flannery: What is the relationship between intention, choice, and virtue?
It is hereby clarified that the Hon’ble High Court has not passed any order declaring that the suit filed by Syedna Qutbuddin has abated. The Hon`ble High Court has merely cancelled the dates which were reserved for hearing of the suit.
As per the legal advice received by us, the scheme of the law is that the legal representative of the original plaintiff (in our case the legal representative of Syedna Qutbuddin RA) can make an application to be brought on record as plaintiff within 90 days. The law provides that the suit abates only on the expiry of the 90 days from the date of the death of Syedna Qutbuddin RA if no such application is made.
Today the Hon’ble High Court cleared the planned dates of cross examination due to the sad passing of His Holiness Syedna Khuzaima Qutbuddin RA, on March 30, 2016. Syedna Taher Fakhruddin TUS will consult with his legal advisors and then guide us on the path forward.
Syedna Khuzaima Qutbuddin TUS, the Plaintiff in the Declaratory Suit filed in the Bombay High Court, will appear in the Honorable High Court for his testimony on the 22nd of April 2016 (16th Rajab 1437H) and the 2nd of May 2016 (26th Rajab 1437H) inshaallah.
An article was published in the Times of India about the new court dates. A copy of the article is published on FatemiDawat.com
Due to the recent structural problems in the Bombay High Court building, Courtroom No. 46 was not available on the 27th and 29th of October. Therefore the Honorable Bombay High Court has postponed the further cross examination of the Plaintiff, Syedna Khuzaima Qutbuddin TUS. The matter is listed for further directions (dates) on November 16th, 2015 after the Diwali vacation.
The Indian Express (Ahmedabad Edition) recently reported on the efforts of the Qutbi Jubilee Scholarship Program (QJSP) to promote Higher Education in the Dawoodi Bohra Community and society in general, particularly education for girls. Below is an excerpt from the article. “…The late Syedna Burhanuddin has spoken several times about how women should be allowed […]
Shz. Dr. Aziz bhaisaheb met with Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam at his residence in New Delhi on 10th February 2015. During the hour long meeting, Dr. Aziz bhaisaheb conveyed to Dr. Kalam the greetings and prayers of Syedna Qutbuddin TUS and also conveyed to him Syedna’s vision for education in the community and society in general […]
In the function organized for the felicitation of Shz Dr. Abdeali bhaisaheb’s completion of PhD, Syedna Qutbuddin TUS had invited the Governor of Maharashtra Mr. Mohammed Fazal for a luncheon at Evan-e-Husaini, Mumbai. Syedna TUS had also invited all the college going students in Mumbai so that this function and achievement would be a source […]
Aqa Maula jiware paachha padhaara safar par si toh Shabab ye souvenir tayyaar kidi hati. Jema Aqa Maula ni safar na photos hata. Shabab ye souvenir Aqa Maula ne Saifee Mahal par araz kidi jivaare aap airport si padhaara.
Ane Mazoon saab ni aa barakat chhe ke Shabab ne Ramadaan na iftaar ni ziyafat karta sikhaayu, gamme te hoi ziyafat toh thai. Aam toh akhu varas ziyafat thai Taher Saifuddin Aqa ni ane aap na wafaat na baad Burhanuddin Aqa ni. Ziyafat thai ehma iftaar thai Burhanuddin Aqa ane tamam Qasre Aali nu. Potay ye wajebaat aapva nu sikhaayu. Bhalay youngsters hoi Shabab ma toh pun wajebaat toh aape jitna bhi rakam hoi. Toh iftaar ane wajebaat nu potay ye sikhaayu chhe. Hamay Founders Day bhi celebrate karta Shabab no every year.
Mazoon Maula chhe ane ek rutba na saheb chhe ne Maula chhe, havay mojiza toh chhe ghana, pun potani intelligence ni bhi vaat karu, aap na alfaaz, apnu thinking kitnu sharp chhe. Potay kitnu dhyaan raakhe chhe ane potay kem alfaaz ada karay chhe. I am not talking of mojiza now, mojiza toh aap karej chhe ane aapni shaan chhe. Manay hajin bhi yaad chhe kitna Shabab ma involved hata aap, Shabab pachhi toh worldwide thai gai. Bombay Central par ek varas sudhin sports no program thayo, every raate badminton ane table tennis. Mazoon saab koi vaar padhaare ane shehzado sahebo bhi padhaare, vahaan bahar lakhelu ke lawn tennis and badminton no program chhe. Mazoon Maula ek vaar raate padhaara, badhu joyu ke badminton ane lawn tennis kem organize thaase, ane pachhi bahar padhaara toh hamaare bulaavi ne farmaayu ke “tamay circular ma toh lakhu chhe lawn tennis. Aa lawn tennis nathi aa toh ground tennis chhe.” Toh aa intelligence dekhai chhe ane kitnu vaachu hasay. Nai toh kitna kaaghaz aave, Shabab ni arazo aave, koi baaju ziyafat thai, koi baaju kai function thai. But he remembered even to the detail that lawn tennis is different and ground tennis is ground, jamin. Toh tamay lawn tennis lakhu chhe ane aa chhe ground tennis. Aa ek ke kitnu khayaal rakhta hata ek ek detail no ke tamay circular ma bhi aa lakhelu chhe. Nai toh kaun joi chhe ane kaun mark karay chhe.
Ek zamaan aayo tivaare dushmano youngsters ne bekhaave ke Sayyedna Taher Saifuddin Aqa toh education na khilaaf chhe. Toh youngsters ne samjhaava ne Shabab Mazoon Maula na sabaq organize karay. Series of lectures bhi organize kariye of influential people like Shaykh Nooruddin Bandukwala, Taiyyebi Diwanji and Shaykh Saleh Kapadia at homes of Shabab members. Russian professor Zoy Ansari ke je ghana jaankaar hata ane Sayyedna Taher Saifuddin paase ghana aave ehnu bhi ek lecture Saifi Boys High School ma organize kidu ane Fatemi history ni ek kitaab apne lakheli ehna naam si publish kidi taake vadhaare youngsters ne affect thai ke apne haq par chhe ane education na khilaaf nathi.
Manay ek personal incident yaad aave chhe, ek vaar funds ni shortage hati Shabab ma ane manay fikar ke activities kem continue thaase Shabab ni? Mazoon Maula saathe tivaare mein Babji Maula na roza ma hato, ane vichaaru ke Babji Maula kai rasto bataave funds vaaste. Mazoon Maula ye hamay sagla Shabab members ne Babji Maula na turbat na phool aapa, jivaare mein phool leva gayo toh phool khatam thai gaya hata, ane fakat chadar no doro haath ma aayo ane Mazoon Maula ye manay aapo. Manay thayu aa doro Babji Maula no javaab chhe. Mein Shabab na sagla paisa aa doro ma muka ane te din pachhi koi ek bhi Shabab ni activity funds na shortage na sabab cancel nathi thai.
Mazoon Maula ye manay Rozat Tahera ma si ek chaadar aapi hati, je Taher bs na salgirah par chadawi hati, ye chaadar hajin mein sambhaali ne barakat jem raakhi chhe. Aaje fakat ye chaadar no doro baaki chhe.
Mazoon Maula, Khuzaima bhaisaheb ni milad par bhi ziyafat thai ane Aqa Maula tashreef raakhta hoi toh Aqa Maula ni ziyafat kariye. Shuru ma ghani vaar em banu ke Aqa Maula ma ziyafat ni araz kariye te pehla ye tareekh already koi bija bhai ne aapi didi hoi ziyafat vaaste. Mazoon Maula khafa bhi thai ke Shabab na members ne pehle Shaykh Ibrahim bhai paase known karaavi joiye ne ziyafat ni tareekh. Ek vaar toh em banu ke Ivan-e Husaini bhi booked hatu toh ziyafat Tambawala Hall ma thai. Aam banu shuru ma toh hamay fix kari didu ke Mazoon Maula na milad ni ziyafat Shabab aape ane biju koi nai. Ane Aqa Maula ye bhi misaal jaari kida potani sign saathe ke aa 4 tareekh (4th Muharram, 16th Muharram, Sayyedna Taher Saifuddin Aqa ni milad ane Sayyedi Mazoon Saheb ni milad) ni ziyafat Shabab aapse ane te bhi Ivan-e Husaini ma, toh Hall bhi aa 4 din ma koi bija ne nai malay. Aqa Maula ye farmaayu hatu aa misaal Anjumane Shiate Ali na office ma aapjo toh eh logo Hall ni booking na lai aa 4 din vaaste.
Pachhi jivaare Aqa Taher wafaat thaya toh Aqa Maula na farzando (Shehzada Qaidjohar bs Ezzuddin) Shabab ni acitivities ma involve thaava laaga ane saglu potana na haath ma lai lidu, ane Mazoon Maula ne sidetrack kari naakha. Te zamaan ma Mazoon Maula Queen Elizabeth cruise par padhaara thoda mahina vaaste toh Qasre Aali na sahebo Shabab no control karva laaga.
Mazoon Maula ye Shabab no letterhead noto banaayo kem ke pachhi letterhead koi na bhi paase jai ane kai bhi chhaapi le. Mazoon Maula jivaare aa safar par hata toh sahebo Aqa Maula ma si letterhead ni raza lai aava, Shabab na membero ye kidu bhi ke Mazoon Maula no opinion lai ne raza lete toh, Dawat no nizaam toh emmaj chhe ke je ehna za’eem hoi ehni raza pehla lai. Pun koi sunu nai.
Shuru na zamaan ma koi wajebaat araz na karay barabar si. Toh Shabab na members ghare ghar jai ne Sayyedna Taher Saifuddin Aqa ane Mohammed Burhanuddin Aqa na iftaar ni ziyafat na cards 5 rs. ma aapta ane kehta aa ziyafat ma aavi ne wajebaat araz kari jaajo. Ehni je last ziyafat hati ehma Shehzada Qaid Johar bs ne aa system ni khabar padi. Toh Abilfazal bs ne Aqa Maula ni baithak paase ubha kara ane kidu, tamay badha ne em poochhjo ‘tamay Shabab na member chho?’ Havay 114 thaal nu jaman ma 60 thaal na members hata ane bija cards si bulaaya hata. Toh ghana em kehta hamay Shabab ma nathi. Toh chelle sahebo ye akho fiasco kari ne Aqa Maula ne em araz kidi ke aa sagla misrepresent karay chhe, Shabab ni ziyafat bolay chhe, ane bija ne bhi bulaave chhe. Pun em na araz kidi ke ziyafat na sabab logo ne Aqa Maula na haath par wajebaat araz karta kari dida.
Mazoon Moula started Shabab in Surat. Shabab took the initiative to organize all the major programs. Aap Moula ashara ma padhara to aap na jaman ni khidmat pun Shabab ye kidi. Pachhi next year it was decided that other organization other than Shabab will do this khidmat of jaman, Qadarbhaisaheb had come for Ashara. The jaman provided by other organization was so spicy and hot that he could not eat, so again Qadarbhaisaheb told daddy [Yusufbhai] that Shabab should do this khidmat.
Once Aqa Moula tus did safar of Ranala by road and Mazoon Moula also accompanied him. After Ranala there was a program to visit Ukai Dam, but Jamaat did not do any arrangements. Mazoon Moula ma araz thai, pote daddy ne farmaayu ke Shabab should do this khidmat and arrangements for Ukai visit. The program was organized, Aqa Moula tus Ukai padhaara and the officers welcomed him. Mazoon Moula on that occasion gave a speech. The officers granted permission to visit the restricted areas of the Dam, and Aqa Moula stayed there for one night. Jamaat members and other mumineen also came from Surat.
Shabab also gave ziyafat of Aqa Moula tus at Revolving Hotel. Aqa Moula tus prayed namaz in that hotel and also arranged for ‘ponk’ (a green jowar very famous in Surat during the winter) party at Rander. Another ziyafat was at Zaini Bungalow, and once at Badri Baug, Dumas. All this was done under the guidance and doa of Mazoon Moula tus.
[Written for Shk Yusufbhai Haidermota by his son on 4 Jan 2014]
Zahabi credit society na naam ni bachat sanstha shuru kidi Shabab na andar ke jema logo savings kare ane fixed amount of rupiya jama kare on a monthly basis, ane end of the year ehna akha paachha malay toh ehne savings dekhai ehni. Ane je jama thata hoi paisa round the year eh karzan bhi apai, je ne zarurat hoi, toh itni raqam idle na rahe. Aa society jivaare qayam thai toh society nu ek constitution draft karva ma aayu hatu. Constitution ma em lakhelu ke ‘interest free kaam thaase sagla.’ Aa constitution jivaare registrar paase lai gaya ehni sign leva ne toh registrar em kidu, ‘though it is against the law to grant permission to interest free societies I will sign it.’ Aa registrar Aligarh University na student hata jivaare ke Aqa Taher Aligarh University na Chancellor hata. Shabab na members ye aa bhai ne pachhi Rozat Tahera na iftetah ma invite kida, ke je 2 din pachhi hatu.
Shabab sports na ghana programmes organise karta. Burhani college ma bhi ghana programmes thaai. Qusai bs, Huzefa bs, Malik bs, Idris bs, ni shaadi ma Shabab ye ghani khidmat keedi. Shabab na 1000 members hazir thaya khidmat vaaste. 17 din lag jaman thaya ane all 17 jaman ma saglu Shabab ye manage kidu. Paan gulab ma chaos thayo pan ultimately Shabab ye barabar sambhali lidu. Shabab ane Bunaiyaat were the only sansthas operating then.
Syedna Taher Memorial trust ma funds nota toh Mazoon Maula TUS yeh funds jame’ keeda.
[Contributed by Munirabai Arsiwala, daughter of Shk. Ebrahimbhai Arsiwala in Oct 2013]
There is a lot of buzz about the new ITS Broadcast Android app, which upon debut has received hundreds of 5-star reviews. I don’t have an Android phone so I won’t comment on the app features or lack thereof, but from my understanding this is a tool that ITS wants to use to broadcast messages to its’ users.
ITS Broadcast is a messaging tool for ITS dept (E-Jamaat).
After installation you will have to provide ITS (E-Jamaat) ID and password to register.
This app can be configured only for Single ITS (E-Jamaat) ID.
Once registered future communication will be made by using this App.
Given that ITS already has a unique identifier for all users and a listed contact email, reviewing the app permissions with the above stated purpose in mind seems to raise some concerns. Importantly, the application asks for permission to Find Accounts on the Device:
Allows the app to get the list of accounts known by the tablet. This may include any accounts created by applications you have installed. Allows the app to get the list of accounts known by the phone. This may include any accounts created by applications you have installed.
Why does the ITS application need to know what other accounts its’ users have on their phones? Is it necessary for ITS to be able to know what Google, Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, Instagram, Flickr, and other accounts are active on your phone? How will ITS use this data?
Those are some questions to ponder before you go ahead and click the Install button…
The Apple Maps fiasco on iOS 6 needs no introduction, but it’s of interest to note that the data sources that Apple pulls map data from differ not only based on the location being viewed, but also based on where the user is viewing the data from (I don’t know how widely known this is). For example, when I’m in Hong Kong, I get data from an unknown source, but when I’m in China, I get data for the entire world provided by AutoNavi.
Ironically, the maps I get for Hong Kong are better when viewed from China than when viewed from Hong Kong itself!
Here are a few comparison shots (left side view from China/right side view from Hong Kong):
Hong Kong’s High Court has ruled that foreign domestic helpers can become Permanent Residents of Hong Kong, after staying here for 7 years. This, no doubt will be appealed to the Court of Final Appeal, and possibly even the National People’s Congress, thereby causing yet another constitutional crisis. However, I honestly can’t think of a better way for domestic helpers to shoot themselves in the foot.
The current pay for a domestic helper is HK$3740 per month, and the pay for someone earning the a minimum wage in Hong Kong would be much higher. Foreign domestic helpers are not entitled to a minimum wage. So lets say that one applies to become a permanent resident – they are immediately no longer employable as a foreign domestic helper and need to be paid minimum wage.
As an employer, would one pay them the significantly higher minimum wage, or would they just make such a person redundant and hire a fresh immigrant at the fixed foreign domestic helper contract rates? It’s a no brainer really, especially with the economy in free fall.
I think that domestic helpers will quickly understand that the economics of becoming permanent residents of Hong Kong simply don’t make sense, and excepting the handful who are qualified for other jobs, they would soon find themselves out of work with poor prospects.
However, I still think that the fearmongering that is being propagated here in Hong Kong is probably unwarranted. According to the current immigration system, there is no right for PRs to bring their family members to live in Hong Kong. I have been through the process three times, and I know from my own experience (and that of others) that in order to bring one’s dependents (including spouse), one needs to show sufficient income to support them, as well as having adequate housing in which the dependents can reside.
The vast majority of domestic helpers would be unable to satisfy those criteria.
Finally, for the avoidance of doubt, I will just mention that no foreign domestic helper will become a PR automatically. This is a status that must be obtained by making an application to do so, having satisfied the relevent criteria.
In today’s South China Morning Post, my letter appeared, the text of which is reproduced below:
Explain aim of national education
With the heated debate regarding the government’s proposed national education curriculum, too many people are jumping to knee-jerk conclusions without really understanding what shape a national education programme might take.
Indeed, the government prematurely asks the public for feedback without explaining to the public what, in fact, national education means.
China, as one of the world’s oldest civilisations, has much to offer us from studying its history. A truly comprehensive national education curriculum would not only celebrate this history but also critically analyse it, offering students the opportunity to arrive at their own conclusions and affording them a forum to share these conclusions in a discussion-based setting.
If fostering patriotism is one of the goals of this curriculum, this should be applauded. However, let us be clear that true patriotism creates a desire for continuous review and improvement of governance.
The government must make clear its intentions.
Are we seeking to enrich the next generation and provide them with the necessary tools to become the leaders of tomorrow or is the administration acting on instructions to cultivate conformity in thinking?
The latter will inevitably lead to political regression and intellectual stagnation.
However, the real menace is not mail, but telemarketing calls. Telemarketing is the most inconvenient type of marketing because it requires active participation by the receiver, at a time that is convenient to the caller. Why should the public be expected to adjust to the schedules of telemarketers who are selling a product that they most likely do not want or need – and one which they certainly did not solicit?
A few years ago the telecoms watchdog OFTA launched the “Do-not-call” register for pre-recorded messages. It is now high time that it extended this register to include non-recorded – that is, live – calls.
This is hardly a novel idea: do-not-call registers in othercountries typically make no distinction between pre-recorded and live telemarketing calls.
This would cause a hue and cry from telemarketers, who would claim they provide a useful service that brings benefits to consumers. Yet that is nonsense; the only beneficiaries are the telemarketers themselves and the companies they represent.
The theft of property is an offence punishable by a prison sentence. I wonder if telemarketers could provide a convincing argument why we should tolerate the theft of our time.
The email on ebrahim.org is currently hosted on pair Networks, a great webhost, but one whose email solutions are lacking in flexibility. I want to move to a solution where I can sync Email/Contacts/Calendar over multiple devices, for a domain with 7 mailboxes.
I’m considering two options:
Pros: Has all the features I’d ever need, excellent support, even for small customers.
Cons: Relatively small quota, and completely out of budget (at least US$13/user/month), email migration into Rackspace is difficult for large datasets.
As Rackspace is out of budget, I didn’t really spend much time looking into it in too much detail.
Google Apps Premier
Pros: Within budget (US$50/user/year), wide ranging feature set.
Cons: Technical support lacking (mainly DIY), doesn’t care about small customers, only compatible with old software, and import into Google Apps is a nightmare scenario due to lack of compatibility of migration tools.
However, there are significant issues which block my migration to Google Apps at the moment, most of which are shocking, given Google’s desire to capture the enterprise messaging/collaboration market.
Let’s make a list of missing features:
Google Apps Sync does not support Outlook 2010
Google Apps Migration for Microsoft Outlook does not support Outlook 2010
Google Apps Migration for Microsoft Outlook does not support Windows 7
There is no supported way to import a mbox format mailbox into Google Apps (there is a workaround where you can use third-party software to import the mbox into Outlook, and then use the Google Apps Migration for Microsoft Outlook, but then the Google migration tool doesn’t support Windows 7 or Outlook 2010, so you’re back to square one)
Sales of Windows 7 began in October 2009, and Office 2010 was made available to volume licensing customers in April 2010. When everybody else already supports Windows 7/Outlook 2010, Google lags far behind and lose all credibility when they claim they are the best solution for enterprise customers.
Enterprise customers rely on predictability, but yet, when asked for a timeline for when the above configurations will be supported, Google replied “we do not have a release date as yet”.
I’m ready to spend money with Google, if only they’d deliver support for modern software. A year in the software world is an eternity, and for Google to not support Windows 7 is akin to a wannabe top-tier airport telling pilots to land using VFR because they’ve not installed an ILS yet.
After five long years using my trusted (and now extremely out of date) laptop, I’ve finally moved along to something better.
Dell Latitude D610, Intel Pentium-M 750 (1.86GHz), 2GB RAM, 60GB HDD (using Truecrypt software FDE), 14.1″ 1400×1050 LCD, Windows XP Professional 32-bit SP3.
Dell Latitude E6510, Intel Core i7-820QM (1.73GHz, with Turbo Boost to 3.06GHz), 8GB RAM, 250GB HDD (using Seagate hardware-based FDE), 15.6″ 1920×1080 LCD, built in 3G HSPA modem for use when travelling, backlit keyboard, Windows 7 Ultimate 64-bit.
Mini Review of Dell Latitude Series
I’m not one to replace my laptop hardware often, but it was time, as I had less than a month of my 5 year warranty remaining and I was out of hard disk space. Plus, the old laptop was breaking down a bit too often for my liking. Motherboard replaced 4 times, LCD replaced 3 times, keyboard replaced 2 times, and HDD replaced once. To Dell’s credit, they never made any fuss and always promptly sent out replacement parts without making me run irrelevant diagnostic tests, but it was all getting a bit too much. I think the main reason I had so many problems was the poor placement of the exhaust vent on the Latitude D-Series chassis, which was on the back and always blocked by the port replicator, causing constant overheating. I was happy to see that on the E-Series chassis, the exhaust vent has been moved to the side instead.
I have yet to try out all of the new features of my new laptop, but I will say that it’s Fast (with a capital F). Especially compared to what I was using before. The screen is amazing and the backlit keyboard is icing on the cake, because these days I use the computer with the lights off a lot, due to having small kids around. Not that I need to look at the keyboard whilst typing, but it’s still cool to have nonetheless.
However, I now have an old laptop in working condition which is sitting idle, and I don’t know what to do with it. First, I considered repurposing it as a training computer for my 3 year old daughter and installing a netbook OS as those should in theory be pretty basic and easy to use.
First I tried Jolicloud (PreFinal release), a netbook OS that seems to be getting generally good reviews in the blogosphere. I tried the LiveCD and was disappointed to find that the Intel wifi card in my laptop did not work (nor was I able to find any information online about making it work). So I just gave it a look-through offline, enough to get a feel about what it offers.
Then I tried Ubuntu Netbook Edition (version 10.04), where the wifi did work on the LiveCD. Overall a pretty similar experience to Jolicloud, which was not a huge surprise given they share the same foundations. Jolicloud seemed to offer a better out of the box experience (rather it would have, had wifi been working), but Ubuntu’s UI polish was much better.
However, finally, both options seemed somewhat underwhelming and I kept on thinking to myself, “What if I just put XP back on this thing?” After all, XP is now almost a decade old, very stable due to years of bugfixes and patching, and pretty snappy too. Jolicloud and Ubuntu, as netbook-optimised OS’, stand out when dealing with real netbooks which have very limited vertical real estate. However, with 1050 pixels on the Y-axis, the appeal of screen real estate saving features was pretty minimal.
After all this, I also gave up on the idea about using my old laptop as a training machine for my daughter. Makes more sense just to use the home desktop with Windows 7 and a regular keyboard and mouse rather than using Windows XP with a relatively confusing trackpad.
I think most likely, I probably will install Windows XP on the old laptop. The alternatives are underwhelming. Though, I still have no idea what I’ll do with it.
In reality, it should be called Know Anybody’s PAN because that’s what you’re able to do, as long as you know their last name and birthdate, neither of which anybody would consider a secret these days. You don’t even need to know the first or middle name, the website will give it to you.
I can’t fathom why anybody would think that this website is a good idea because it effectively facilitates identity fraud. Besides forgetting one’s own PAN, I cannot think of a single legitimate reason why anybody would need to use this website. And let’s be clear; allowing people to check their own PAN is not a good enough justification to make this information public.
There are plenty of illegitimate reasons why this website would be used. First and foremost would be identity fraud. Knowing someone’s PAN is crucial if you want to engage in fraudulent transactions on their behalf.
While the internet can be a useful tool, sometimes people need to think about why a tool is really necessary and think about the implications before putting it online.
However, I suppose in India, a country where privacy laws don’t exist, and the concept of personal privacy is alien, it should not come as a big surprise that the government itself is facilitating identity fraud.
Just to try out the system, you could look up one of many common Indian personalities’ names and dates of birth on Wikipedia and the website will give you their PAN.
To ask Her Majesty’s Government what discussions they have had with the governments of France and Germany about security risks of using Internet Explorer; and whether they will encourage public sector users to use another web browser. [HL1420]
The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Home Office (Lord West of Spithead): UK government officials and subject matter experts are in regular contact with their counterparts in France, Germany and other countries on both a bilateral and multilateral basis to exchange technical information and opinions on many aspects of cyber security, including software vulnerabilities. For example, the UK’s Government Computer Emergency Response Team (GovCertUK) and Combined Security Incident Response Team (CSIRTUK) are members of the group of European Government CERTS (EGG), as are their French and German equivalents.
Complex software will always have vulnerabilities and motivated adversaries will always work to discover and take advantage of them. We take internet security very seriously and we have worked with Microsoft and other suppliers over many years to understand the security of the products used by HMG, including Internet Explorer. There is no evidence that moving from the latest fully patched versions of Internet Explorer to other browsers will make users more secure. Regular software patching and updating will help defend against the latest threats.
Microsoft issued a patch to fix the recent Internet Explorer vulnerability on 21 January. Prior to this, government departments had been issued with a GovCertUK alert on how to deal with this particular incident and to mitigate vulnerabilities in relation to particular versions of IE.
A government user, operating on government systems, such as the Government Secure Intranet (GSi), will benefit from additional security measures, unlikely to be available to the average home computer user. These include tools which actively monitor for evidence of any malicious attacks.
While the UK government contends that “there is no evidence that moving from the latest fully patched versions of Internet Explorer to other browsers will make users more secure”, there are many others who would disagree.
Lord Avebury (blog, bio) has tabled a written question in the United Kingdom House of Lords yesterday, which reads as under:
Lord Avebury to ask Her Majesty’s Government whether, in the light of the recent announcement by Microsoft that Internet Explorer was used to carry out the cyber attacks which prompted Google to say it will withdraw from China, they will review the use of Internet Explorer throughout the public sector. HL1505
Lord Avebury mentions that the Parliamentary IT authorities are actively discouraging the use of alternative browsers such as Chrome so it is great to see that he is holding the government accountable for their policies.
According to UK parliamentary procedure, the government is obliged to provide a written response to his question on or before 8 February 2010. I think it will be interesting to see what they have to say.
Lord Avebury is an active campaigner for the rights of ethnic minorities in the UK and also those who are British nationals living abroad. He is also a member of the EU Select Committee which considers EU policy on protecting Europe from large-scale cyber attacks.
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